Evaluation of Eastern-Central European citizen’s decision-making style – a comparative study. Part II.

Evaluation of Eastern-Central European citizen’s decision-making style – a comparative study. Part II.

Having looked at western and Eastern-Central European adverts, the prominence of fact-based commercials was identified in ECE countries, whereas most of the western advertisements creatively take the audience to a journey, while showing limited information. This comparative study evaluates the reasons for this phenomenon, while answers the following questions: What kind of identity emerges as a consequence of the turbulent political and economic changes, as consumers’ transition from a communist to a democratic country? What kind of adverts do ECE consumers prefer? What influences their decision-making? The first part of the publication looks at identity formation from an academic point of view, with its main focus on Slovak consumers.
The second part of the contribution analyses the research findings. The research contributes to the understanding of the potential for travel to change the way that adverts are understood among ECE consumers. Travelling and exposure to different cultures earlier in life altered ECE consumers’ tendency to deconstruct transformational adverts. Based on the research findings, a marketing strategy for foreign brands wanting to penetrate the ECE market was devised.

1.4 Issues of institutional trust and its effects on ECE consumers risk aversion

A further reason behind ECE consumer’s need for detailed information in adverisement may arise from their lacking social trust (Boda and Medve-Bálint 2014). Social trust is “generalised reciprocity and trust, learned from participation in networks of civic engagement” (Letki and Evans 2002, p. 5). Putnam (2000) and Inglehart (1990, 1999) claimed that social trust benefits individuals, by influencing trust in institutions, and impacts individuals’ need for product related information. Letki and Evans (2002) conducted a survey-based analysis to observe how social trust and the economic and political development of ECE countries is interrelated, and concluded that Slovakia, Czech Republic and Hungary have the lowest social trust, political and economic satisfaction out of the other ECE countries; they believe to have no power to influence governmental actions and found the economic situation dissatisfactory. Kong (2013, p. 849) argued that countries where individuals experience low social trust, “utilise intercultural experience as a way of gathering information”, and blame the government for their problems.
Boda and Medve-Balint (2014) compared Western European and ECE countries’ trust levels, concluding that ECE inhabitants have lower institutional trust, due to the transitional process and disapproval towards the “legitimacy of ECE political systems and institutions” (Boda and Medve-Balint 2014, p. 1). UK citizens trust the local institutions and the government, but not EU institutions, whereas ECE countries lay more trust into international institutions (Sapir et al. 2012). Consequently, UK consumers do not require much organisation-related information in adverts, whereas the opposite is true for ECE citizens.
Institutional trust also depends on individuals’ success, economic safety and prosperity in social lives (Boda and Medve-Balint 2014). According to Brouthers et al. (1998), power distance also influences institutional trust. Hofstede (1980) characterized power distance as a: “measure of trust inherent in a culture…level of trust in a society and the need for formal control” (Brouthers et al. 1988, p. 488). Citizens from high power distance cultures display lower levels of trust than people from low power distance countries (Shane 1994). Since Slovak citizens have higher power distance, they should display lower trust levels towards authority and formal control, which may in turn explain why they require more informaiton in adverts to make decisions.
Even though trust may depend on institutions’ performance, and individuals’ social and economic well-being, the transition process from a soviet to a democratic country and the devastating outcomes of the financial crisis also have an impact. Lack of trust in the government and institutions may influence ECE’s need for more information in adverts, enabling the citizens to overcome their mistrust. In summary, it is proposed:
Proposition 1: That western experience- and transformation-based advertisement does not convince the ECE customer base, but confuses them, due to their lacking institutional trust levels, higher risk aversion and uncertainty avoidance.

2 The new consumer

Customers in developed markets gain product-relevant knowledge through several sources: from advertisements (Coulter et al. 2001), influence from others (Feick and Price 1987), personal product experience (Kempf and Smith 1998), personal information search (Srinivasan and Ratchford, 1991), social media and the internet (Tuten and Solomon 2017).
Feick et al. (1995) contrasted US and Hungarian customer’s information search habits a few years after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Feick et al. (1995) concluded that Hungarian consumers extensively search for product related information, and do not trust personal information sources, friends and family, because of their ‘unreliability’. Hungarian women do not use cues that indicate quality, are sceptical about marketing, and do not trust advertisements. Some Hungarians identified packaging and price as signals of quality, yet some customers still believe that western products lack quality ingredients.
According to the research, 45% of Hungarian customers fall into the cluster of Self-Reliant: they research the product on their own, but do not ask experts for help. 15% of the people are risk averse and not interested in the new market information, and 18% claimed that they favor Western brands.
The research concluded that Hungarians search for extensive information when purchasing, because of their limited prior experience and knowledge about the brand. However, the research was conducted in 1992, when customers identity started to develop, hence their findings may not be adequate today. Consequently, the impact of risk aversion on advert preference needs to be observed. It is assumed:
Proposition 2: That increased amount of information in the adverts signal increased quality and lowers perceived risk for ECE citizens.
Advertising became the main source of product knowledge in the 1990s, and citizens spent more time researching information about new products (Coulter et al. 2005). The researchers identified a positive relationship between knowledge and brand experience, and concluded that “knowledge did not mediate the effects of either brand experience or media use on confidence in choice” (Coulter et al. 2005, p. 613). Even though more adverts are broadcasted, Hungarian customers’ search for information did not decrease; it was still a significant source of product knowledge, due to increased product choice and decreased amount of other “favoured choice heuristics”, such as “country-of-origin” (Coulter et al. 2005, p. 614). Furthermore, a research by Nagyová et al. (2014) confirmed that Slovak consumers are still influenced by the price, location and product quality when making decisions.
The literature review highlighted that ECE consumers began their transition to a western consumer, yet search for informational individually, rather than relying on adverts; demonstrate low trust towards brands, impacting their decision-making styles. Thus, it is expected:
Proposition 3: That ECE citizens take into account price, personal experience, brand awareness and factual information when making decisions, thus informative adverts are more appealing.

2.1 Differences between the ECE countries leads to different Euro- Consumer clusters with differing advertising needs and identities

Differences between post-socialist countries and their citizens can be observed (Manrai et al. 2001). Heterogeneity, namely “culture, history, language, and the duration and intensity of Communism and its economic doctrine… industrial development… approach towards the transition to a market economy” (Skinner et al. 2008, p. 195) contributed to these differences. Consequently, Euro-Consumer clusters were established, and marketing strategies adjusted to these homogenous markets (Van der Merwe and L’Huillier 1989). According to Skinner et al. (2008), differences can be explored between the Central (Slovakia, Hungary) and the Eastern European (Ukraine, Russia) countries, arising from heterogeneity factors. These individuals have different identities, attitudes towards advertising practice and decision-making styles. As generalisation on identity formation and decision-making among these different clusters would be problematic, the researcher chose to lay more emphasis on Central European countries for this research scope.
In summary, ECE countries have different needs, identities and decision-making styles, affecting their responses towards advertising practice. According to the literature, Slovakia and Hungary are more westernized ECE countries, yet are very different from Western European nations. Consequently, it is expected:
Proposition 4: That age, gender, and the country of origin have an impact on individuals responses towards informational and transformational adverts.

3 Informational and transformational adverts, and their deconstruction

Puto and Wells (1984) differentiated between informational (highly cognitive) and transformational (highly experiential) adverts. Puto and Wells (1984, p. 638) characterized information adverts as containing “factual (i.e., presumably verifiable), relevant brand data in a clear and logical manner; [they enable the assessment of] the merits of buying the brand after having seen the advertisement”. An advert only becomes informational, if the consumer believes and claims its’ factual value.
Puto and Wells (1984, p. 638) characterized transformational adverts as ones that associate “the experience of using (consuming) the advertised brand with a unique set of psychological characteristics which would not typically be associated with the brand experience to the same degree without exposure to the advertisement”. Transformational adverts describe the brands’ consumption experience by associating emotions awakened by the advert with the experience of using the product.

3.1 ECE adverts are more informational, as a result of higher risk aversion and market age

Bao et al. (2003, p. 750) argued that high-risk aversion has a negative aftermath on “recreational and hedonistic” orientation: the emotional response towards adverts (Holbrook 1983). Consequently, if ECE countries have higher risk-aversion, they should prefer utilitarian, informational adverts to transformational, hedonistic ones.
ECE consumers could also prefer informational adverts their identity was developed in a new market. Chandy et al. (2001, p. 400) claimed that argument-based appeal (informational adverts) is broadcasted in new markets, whereas emotion-based, transformational adverts are popular in older markets, because of the “intrinsic differences in consumers’ motivation and ability to process information”. Customers from developing markets have no product-related information and knowledge, limited feedback through word-of-mouth, and possess definite amount of product-related experience. Consequently, they require advertisements to decrease the perceived risk associated with decision-making, whereas customers who have experience with products, pay less attention to advertising practice, since they need less information to make purchase related decisions.
Consequently, western countries should have more transformational adverts, due to their vast experience with products. Nevertheless, ECE countries should have more informational adverts, as a consequence of younger market age and higher risk aversion (Schumann et al. 1990).

3.2 The process of advert deconstruction depends on the socio-cultural background of the individual

Extent literature presented above shows why ECE adverts tend to be more informational. First, citizens are more risk averse, thus need the brands reassurance about quality and value for money. Second, the essence of a „new market“ increases need for information about unknown brands. A further reason may stem from the disability to deconstruct transformational adverts. According to O’Donohue (1994), who draw on the users and gratifications theory, marketing does not serve people, but people do something with advertisements: the “ads only value is that which the consumer gives it” (O’Donohue 1994, p. 56). The ability to deconstruct adverts depends on the cultural, historical and social background of individuals.
Consumers interpret advertising messages in light of their cultural knowledge of texts and visual signs; consequently, individuals interpret adverts differently within various cross-cultural markets. Personal experience also influences deconstruction of adverts. Thus, not only the culturally embedded conventional meanings, symbolic and arbitrary relationships, but individual’s life project and themes, experiences and perceptions have an influence on advert deconstruction, and the ability to understand transformational adverts (Mick and Buhl 1992).

4 Goal and methodology

The literature review identified four propositions with regards to ECE consumer’s decision-making styles and their attitude towards adverts. The aim of the research is to establish how ECE consumers make decisions, how did the turbulent economic and historical background impact their consumer identity and whether they prefer informational adverts over transformational ones.
To address the above outlined goal, a mixed method approach was chosen: quantitative self-completion survey and qualitative semi-structured interviews. The mixed-method approach enabled the researcher to overcome the drawbacks of quantitative and qualitative research methods. A mixed-method approach bridges the gap between the low validity and reliability of qualitative interviewing practice and the risk of losing valuable information through solely focusing on quantitative survey findings. Qualitative research enables generalization and certainty about differences in responses towards adverts, and semi-structured interviews provide an in-depth understanding of the reasons for advert preference. Phenomenological interviewing, along with the life history approach were used to give the in-depth answers a context, and to better understand individuals’ opinions.
To be certain about whether ECE consumers react and interpret informational and transformational adverts differently, self-completion questionnaires were used. Self-completion questionnaires are sources of quantitative information; display closed questions and are shorter and easy-to-follow, to overcome the risk of ‘respondent fatigue’ (Bryman and Bell 2013, p. 232).
Semi-structured interview uses some pre-set questions as “interview guides” (Bryman and Bell 2013, p. 467). According to Leidner (1993), such interviewing practice allows a certain degree of structure, yet is flexible enough to “pursue topics of particular interest” (Leidner 1993, p. 238).
To evaluate the interview answers, understanding of answer context is necessary: phenomenological interviewing practice focuses on “direct description of a particular situation or event as it is lived through without offering causal explanations or interpretive generalizations” (Given 2008, p. 618). The interview enables exploration and gathering of “experiential narrative material, stories or anecdotes” (Van Manen 2011). Individuals’ life history is also pivotal in gaining deeper insight into interviewees’ reaction to adverts. The life history method is defined as documenting “the inner experience of individuals, how they interpret, understand and define the world around them” (Faraday and Plummer 1979, p. 776). The method incorporates the evaluation of important life themes (“text meanings of and about the reader”) and projects (fluctuates “in accordance with changes in circumstances and life cycle”) (Mick and Buhl 1992, p. 318).
According to Mick and Buhl (1992, p. 319), the customer is embedded in the social an cultural context inherited at birth; yet traverses through a “life history and resides in a current life-world that includes personal life themes and life projects”.

Figure 2: Sociocultural context
Source: Mick and Buhl (1992, p. 320)

4.1 Research limitation

The research is limited in its scope: due to the limited nature of the project, not every ECE country was observed. The author laid emphasis on Slovak consumer’s decision-making style, rather than focusing on every ECE country and its’ consumers. ECE countries and consumers are not homogenous, and hence generalization cannot be drawn. The research was conducted and presented in the form of a comparative study, with its main aim of focusing on the differences in identity formulation of post-communist and western consumers. Moreover, the scope of the project is limited in terms of the number of participants. However, the researcher was trying to overcome the above limitations through a more comprehensive and focused interviewing practice.

Furthermore, the scope of the research lacks in-depth analysis on how social media and the rise of marketing technology influences consumer’s decision-making (Jayaram et al. 2015). This is because the researcher wanted to focus on how decision-making and consumer identity formation was influenced by the historical and cultural factors.

4.2 Data sources

Firstly, eighty participants were required to fill out a survey on their reaction to two adverts: one transformational and one informational. Sixty Slovak consumers and twenty UK consumers contributed to the survey. Fifty-eight questions, on empathetic tendencies towards adverts were asked. Responses were given through a five-point Likert scale, that ranged from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The method and the questions were adapted from Puto and Wells’s research (1984).
Nine individuals born and raised in Slovakia were interviewed; their responses, along with the survey results that measured deconstructive ability and understanding of different adverts, were merged and further evaluated. Limitation arising from translation from Slovak to English was partially reduced by “using fluid descriptions of meanings” during interviewing (van Nes et al. 2010).

4.3 Data analysis

Quantitative data was analysed with SPSS techniques in three steps. First, a factor analysis was conducted, that identified the same two factors, informational and transformational, as Puto and Wells (1984). Second, Cronbach’s coefficient alpha measurements were conducted, and the both informational and transformational levels were found to be borderline acceptable (Nunnally 1978). Third, regression analysis was performed (Bryman and Bell 2011).
Qualitative data was analysed in two steps. First, participants opinions were translated to English, and coded based on seven codes identified that fall into four broad categories: difference between UK and ECE adverts, ECE adverts during the communism, efficiency of advertising strategies and decision-making styles. Second, life history method (Mick and Buhl 1992) and phenomenological approach (Given 2008) were used to analyse the context of responses, and provide deeper understanding.

5 Findings

The findings section is divided into two parts: first, the quantitative research summaries are presented, followed by the qualitative interview findings.

5.1 Quantitative research findings

Table 1: Regression coefficients for transformational factor
Source: Author

The standardized coefficient shows that individuals’ country of origin (0.055) has a bigger effect on their response to informational adverts, than age (-0.04) or gender (-0.136).

Table 2: Regression coefficients for informational factor
Source: Author

The standardized coefficient shows that individuals’ country of origin (0.238) has a bigger effect on their response to informational adverts, than age (0.218) or gender (-0.123). If borderline levels of significance are accepted (*p<0.1), individuals’ origin (“where are you from”) is significant (0.086), although it has a weak effect. However, the composition of the sample (20 respondents from the United Kingdom, and 60 from Slovakia) does not allow the effects’ identification with more confidence. A group of 20 people for a binary variable in a regression model does allow the variable to be included, but this is a threshold to acceptance. If the research were conducted with a larger sample size, the degrees of freedom would have increased, boosting confidence levels. The following two tables outline the differences between the level of persuasion by the informational and transformational advert among ECE and UK consumers.

Table 3: Informational adverts
Source: Author

Table 4: Transformational adverts
Source: Author

The survey used an instrument developed by Puto and Wells (1984) to categorize individuals based on responses towards informational and transformational adverts. The same two factors that the researchers identified were established: informational and transformational. This signals that consumers were able to respond to the adverts based on their empathetic tendencies. As found by Puto and Wells (1984), both factors were considered reliable, since the value of Cronbach’s alpha was borderline acceptable for explanatory research.
The regression model for transformational factor indicated no significant correlation between the dependent and independent variables, thus none of the independent variables (age, gender, country of origin) were associated with respondents’ survey answers.
However, the regression model for the informational factor showed that country of origin contributes statistically significantly to the model, if borderline level of significance is accepted, meaning that country of origin is associated with individuals’ responses to the advert. Based on the qualitative findings, the fourth proposition is partially rejected:

Proposition 4: That age, gender and the country of origin have an impact on individuals’ responses towards informational and transformational adverts.

Reasons for the decision are examined in the discussion, and the possibility of a methodological error is outlined.

5.2 Qualitative research findings

The interviews revealed that preference towards informational adverts stems from the historical and economic background of ECE countries, while highlighting that value for money and brand loyalty are the most important factors in the decision-making process. The interview findings are presented based on these two topics identified.

5.2.1 First topic: the preference towards informational adverts arose from the lack of facts during communism

Informants who had more chance to travel in their childhood claimed that the transformational advert made them curious and was convincing enough to try the product out. According to an Informant, “the [informational advert for chocolate] was boring…there are better ways to advertise the chocolate… [in the transformational advert], the kids are funny and I would not switch to another TV channel while watching it”.
On the other hand, those who did not travel claimed that they either did not understand the transformational advert, or the advert did not evoke an interest and thus did not convince them to buy the product; the transformational advert, as for an Informant, presented “another culture and values, and these do not fit the values and beliefs of our culture… we are old-fashioned”.
As a consequence, the first proposition is partially rejected, since the transformational advert only confused those consumers who did not travel:

Proposition 1: That western transformational advertisement does not convince the ECE customer base, but confuse them.

However, the interviewees claimed that the informational advert is more convincing for the ECE consumer base, since it contains more information about the product: according to another Informant, consumers need more facts arising from the lack of information during communism: “we are curious about how the product is made, about the ingredients… western people are used to adverts, they do not care about the ingredients, they want the advert to grab their attention immediately”. This may be because “people in the past [during communism], had to think ahead, had to plan rationally”, consequently, they need an advert to tell them “what we should do, what we should buy”.
Furthermore, an informant claimed that western markets are generally more competitive, thus brands want to distinguish themselves by creating a brand personality through transformational, creative adverts that consumers can buy into. The interviewee argued that this is not the case in a post-socialist country, such as Slovakia: individuals either require adverts to provide them with more information, alternatively they search for information on their own, or they trust the brand they have been using for a long time. Consequently, the second proposition is accepted:

Proposition 2: That increased amount of information in the advert signals increased quality and lowers perceived risk for ECE citizens.

5.2.2 Second topic: Value for money and brand experience are the two most important factors when making decisions

One informant believes that the most successful companies in Slovakia do not have to advertise themselves, since the single “most important thing, that is good value for money, does not need advertisement”. He also believes that only those advertise (banks, broadband and phone providers, pharmaceuticals) who constantly innovate their products, and have entered Slovakia after the fall of communism. Respondents agreed that products introduced during the communism that are still present on the shelves do not need to advertise: “people remember the good quality of those products, and even though they may try to experiment, would probably go back to the brand they know”.
Respondents highlighted that price and quality are more important than advertisements: an informant claimed that “only those brands advertise that do not have good quality products”. People rely on their brand experience and word-of-mouth, yet most of the time, do not trust the advertisements, rather are loyal to brands that have been present for longer: “I would always buy the product I trust and have experience with over a product that has an amazing advertisement” claimed another informant. Consequently, the third proposition is accepted, and further investigated in the discussion:

Proposition 3: That ECE citizens take into account price, personal experience, brand awareness and factual information when making decisions, thus informative adverts are more appealing.

In sum, the findings enabled the researcher to devise two themes influencing ECE consumers’ ability to deconstruct an advert: tendency to read-in and travelling. These are evaluated in the following section.

6 Discussion

The empirical work enabled acceptance or rejection of the four propositions identified in the literature review. Additional insight emerged in relation to the propositions, evaluated in the following section. The quantitative and qualitative research found:

1.That western transformational advertisement confuses ECE consumers who have not travelled, yet does not confuse ECE consumers who have travelled.

2.That increased amount of information in the adverts signals increased quality and lowers perceived risk for ECE citizens.

3.That ECE citizens take into account price, personal experience, brand awareness and factual information when making decisions, thus informative adverts are more appealing.

4.That country of origin has a weak effect on individuals’ responses towards informational adverts.

Based on the empirical findings, two themes have emerged: first, the experience of international travel; second, the ability and willingness to deconstruct texts. These affect ECE consumers’ deconstructive ability, and decision-making styles.

6.1 First theme: the amount of travelling in childhood

Based on the quantitative research findings, country of origin has a weak impact on individuals’ responses to informational adverts; none of the other demographic variables clarified responses to transformational adverts. The qualitative research suggests that the amount one travelled as a child explains attitudes towards adverts: individuals who travelled more were persuaded by the transformational advert and were able to read-in and relate it to their life themes and projects (Mick and Buhl 1992; Shankar, 1999). Individuals who did not travel did not understand the transformational advert and were not able to deconstruct it, since these adverts, as per an informant, represent “another culture and values”.
Travelling in early childhood leads to increased competency, skepticism towards advertisements, the understanding of its aims and exposure to different views. According to Wright (1986, p.1), individuals who were exposed to advertising practice earlier in life, develop a “schemer schema”, an “intuitive theory about marketers influence tactics” through a basic understanding of consumers and their role. It leads to understanding of advertising practice and results in skepticism towards marketing (Moschis and Moore, 1979, Moschis and Churchill 1979).
Arguably, individuals who did not travel did not develop the schemer schema: the competency to deconstruct an advert in the early stages of their life (Wright 1986). Individuals, who have indicated that travelling forms part of their life projects, were convinced by the transformational advert, found it “funny, interesting, persuasive and personally appealing”; were not distracted from “critical product content”, because they are socially and culturally competent to process these complicated visual messages (Chandy et al. 2001, p. 402). These findings support Ang’s (1990) argument: advert deconstruction depends on culture, social and historical background of individuals, their life project and themes (Mick and Buhl 1992). Deconstruction also builds on individual competency: the more competent consumers are, the more complicated visual structures they can cope with. Therefore, travelling may have increased competency in earlier life, leading to easier advert deconstruction.
In sum, ECE consumers who have travelled in their childhood and been exposed to advertising practice and different cultures earlier are more open-minded, yet skeptical towards adverts: they can understand transformational adverts, can easily deconstruct informational advert, and do not attempt to extract the information on its own, rather try to find ‘themselves’ in the advert. Individuals who have not travelled and not been exposed to adverts, have not learned the fundamentals of advertising practice early in life, believe that only informational adverts are part of the natural environment, thus do not question their meaning. They prefer adverts that are similar to the socialist persuasion style: they have always been told what to do, thus they want brands and adverts to guide them, rather than transform them.
This explains why the empirical findings differed from the fourth proposition devised from extent literature (That age, gender and the country of origin have an impact on individuals’ responses towards informational and transformational advert); the quantitative research only indicated county of origin to have a weak effect on individuals’ responses towards informational advert. A factor not considered in the quantitative research emerged through observations during qualitative interviewing: travelling deviates responses towards transformational adverts among ECE consumers.
The first proposition was partially rejected, (That western transformational advertisement does not convince the ECE customer base, but confuse them), since transformational adverts only confused the consumers who have not travelled, did not develop a schemer schema and learn advert deconstruction in their early life. Open-minded individuals were not confused by adverts: they successfully deconstructed transformational adverts in relation to their life themes and projects.
The small sample size of the quantitative research may deviate these findings. A group of 20 UK consumers for a binary variable in a regression model does allow the variable to be included, however, is a threshold level acceptance (Bryman and Bell 2011). Further research should consult a larger sample size to increase confidence levels. Research should also focus on travelling as an independent variable in quantitative research that deviates responses towards informational and transformational adverts.

6.2 Second theme: the tendency to read-in

The extent literature highlighted that need for decision-making guidance in adverts arose from the lack of institutional trust (Letki and Evans 2002, Boda and Medve-Balint 2014, Brouthers et al. 1998), higher risk aversion and uncertainty avoidance (Hofstede 1980, Matzler et al. 2008), stemming from the turbulent historical and cultural changes (Bakacsi et al. 2002, Szabo 2006).
The research findings indicate that ECE consumers need more information when making decisions yet do not search for additional information on their own; therefore, adverts should contain sufficient amount of facts. The advert should not be about the individual, its’ life themes and projects (Mick and Buhl 1992), but about the product: if an advert is transformational, it is confusing, because ECE consumers are not able or willing to read-in (depending on the amount of childhood travel). ECE consumers perceive the advert to be part of the traditional (classical) approach to communication: the marketer constructs the message, and the reader deconstructs the same message, without the prominence of noise factor (Gronhaug et al. 1991). The advert does not have degrees of freedom, since it is perceived to be the representation of the product only, rather than the reflection of the self. Contrarily, the findings indicate that non-ECE consumers tend to be more likely to ‘read-in’, to relate to their life themes and projects while watching the commercial, and deconstruct it in light of their own life (Mick and Buhl 1992).
Even though ECE consumers do not demonstrate a tendency of reading-in, the interviewees indicated that advertisements are a sufficient source of information and are pivotal for brands to sell: adverts persuade them to buy a low involvement product (confectionary or health-care related goods). Adverts need to contain some degree of information to be convincing: informants claimed that “if a product is not advertised with a lot of information, it does not make sense to advertise it at all… that product is not worth our attention, because it is not a good product”; if a “brand is advertised with less information, the company does not have to say anything about that brand”.
This finding reinforces Coulter et al.’s argument (2005) who claimed that the importance of advertisement in product information search increased during the 1990s, and as this research found, has been increasing for low involvement products ever since. The reason for this phenomena is the lack of institutional trust: ECE consumers require information from companies to lower their perceived risk, as a consequence of lacking trust (Boda and Medve-Balint 2014). Correspondingly, if the company does not give out information during its advert, their product is assumed to have low quality and the risk of buying increases.
Interestingly, past research on information search habits indicated that ECE consumers did not obtain information from peers, salespeople and acquaintances, rather relied on personal information search (Feick et al. 1995, Coulter et al. 2005). However, both the interview and survey results indicate that individuals do not search for information personally; they either rely on personal product experience, word-of-mouth, or adverts. Survey results indicate that 68% of the ECE consumers found sufficient amount of information within the informational advert, however, only 6% claimed that they would search for more information on their own (Table 3 and 4).

A further factor influencing ECE consumers’ tendency to read-in is brand loyalty. Based on the interview findings, two categories of consumer brand loyalty are identified: ECE citizens who have not travelled in early childhood stay brand loyal due to their risk aversion. The second category consist of ECE citizens who have experienced travelling in their childhood, thus developed the ability to relate to brands on a transformational level, hence perceive brands as part of their identity.
Consumers who have not travelled stay brand loyal towards the brands they first tried in the 1990s, because “people prefer brands they are familiar with, since they do not have money to experiment, or have experimented before and did not like the product”. These findings confirm Feick et al’s (1995) research that ECE consumers in the 1990s would be reluctant to stick to the brand they have used, as a result of negative past experience. Furthermore, the fact that ECE consumers are brand loyal because of their higher risk aversion confirms Vilcekova’s (2014) argument: Slovak consumers stay brand loyal due to their positive experience.
The second category of brand loyal individuals, mainly those who have travelled in their childhood, perceive the brand as part of their life theme, evoking positive life experiences and transformation. Fournier and Yao (1997) observed individual life themes and projects as having an effect on brand loyalty and identified different categories of loyalty: first, where the brand has a unique connection to individuals life themes, upbringing and self-expression; second, where one is loyal to multiple brands adopted for different usage purposes; third, where one expressed loyalty to product type, process and form (Gordon 1994). Most of the ‘travelled’ ECE interviewees belong to the second category; they are loyal to multi-brands used for different occasions. For instance, one informant highlighted that she regularly purchases technological products branded “Orava” because she is satisfied with the quality and associates good memories of family gatherings to these products, resulting in brand loyalty.
In summary, the research findings highlight a paradox of trust; ECE consumers do not trust institutions and brands, however, they trust the information presented by brands in advertisements, due to lacking deconstructive ability. More deconstructive-minded individuals, the ones who travelled, eliminate the paradox of trust, and have the tendency/ability to deconstruct transformational adverts. This may be due to differences in variety seeking behaviour: the respondents who travelled and been introduced to innovative products, may have more trust in institutions than ECE consumers who have not travelled.
Interviewees are not inclined to search for information extensively on their own, thus contradicting Coulter et al. (2005) and Feick et al’s (1995) argument in many cases: they rather rely on the help of salespeople, adverts, word-of-mouth and personal experience, and take into account price, brand awareness and facts when making decision; informational adverts are more convincing, since they provide the sufficient decision-making guidance. This explains why the third proposition suggested by the literature was accepted: That ECE citizens take into account price, personal experience, brand awareness, and factual information when making decisions, thus informative adverts are more appealing. Brand loyalty has a strong impact on ECE consumers’ decision-making process: even if an advert is informative, they stick to brands they have encountered and limit variety-seeking behaviour, due to negative past experience with experimentation, or the presence of positive life themes.
In light of the empirical work, the second proposition was accepted (That increased amount of information in the adverts signal increased quality and lowers perceived risk for ECE citizens). ECE citizens who have not travelled require an advert to be informational: if a “brand is advertised with less information, the company does not have to say anything about that brand”. The reason lays in the paradox of trust: ECE consumers lack institutional trust, yet trust the information portrayed by brands in informational adverts, due to the lacking ability of deconstruction. Contrarily, ECE citizens who have travelled in childhood show a tendency to read-in to adverts; they prefer informational commercials, yet have the ability/willingness to deconstruct and be convinced by transformational adverts.
A possible methodological error of badly chosen stimuli may have been present that could deviate the responses towards the adverts: the ad regarded as informational/ transformational may not have been informational/transformational enough; further research shall overcome this possible fault. Research should also investigate brand loyalty among the generation born in the 21th century (raised when western brands were established in ECE), to observe whether their family’s loyalty to ‘old brands’ (socialist; early 1990s) impacts the new generations’ decision-making style.

6.3 Implications for advertisers who want to penetrate the ECE market

Based on the survey and interview results, ECE consumers prefer informational adverts due to their technocratic, materialist identity. ECE individuals do not trust the institutions and are highly risk-averse. Paradox of trust was identified: despite the lack of institutional trust, they require the adverts to represent the factual benefits of using a product. However, their technocratic identity may be mediated by the extent of travelling in early childhood: these individuals demonstrate variety seeking behaviour, openness towards transformational adverts, and the ability to read-in to commercials.

Table 5: Differences between ECE consumers
Source: Author

If foreign brands want to successfully advertise to ECE consumers, their market research should investigate their audiences’ past travelling habits that deviates their ability/willingness to interpret adverts.

7 Conclusion

The research paper contributes to the formation of an understanding of ECE consumers’ decision-making style in three ways. First, the quantitative empirical work indicates that country of origin does only moderate individuals’ empathetic tendencies towards informational adverts. Second, in contrast to findings in the extent literature, ECE consumers do not search for information extensively; rather rely on the information presented by brands in adverts, despite not trusting the institutions (Boda and Medve-Balint 2014).
Third, the qualitative research contributes to the formation of an understanding of the potential for travel to change the way that adverts are understood. ECE consumers have a preference towards informational adverts, probably stemming from their technocratic identity; however, this identity is moderated by the amount of travelling in early childhood. ECE consumers who have travelled developed schemer schema earlier in life: an ability to understand the purpose of advertisements, be open about transformational adverts and deconstruct adverts through reading-in to their life themes and projects. These individuals develop brand loyalty as a consequence of their positive experience with the brand. On the other hand, ECE consumers whose materialistic identity was not moderated by travel did not understand and deconstruct transformational adverts, demonstrating limited variety seeking behaviour and preferring informational adverts that lower the perceived risk of purchase. These individuals developed brand loyalty as a consequence of risk minimization; they do not trust newer brands but prefer brands available since the 1990s.

End of Part II.

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Kľúčové slová/Key Words

decision-making, cultural differences, consumer identity, Eastern-Central Europe
rozhodovanie, kultúrne rozdiely, spotrebiteľská identita, východná a stredná Európa

JEL klasifikácia



Hodnotenie štýlu rozhodovania občanov východnej a strednej Európy – porovnávacia štúdia. Časť II.

Po preskúmaní reklám v západnej, východnej a centrálnej Európe je možné zhrnúť nasledovné fakty: reklamy orientované na fakty boli identifikované v ECE krajinách, kým reklamy na západe boli kreatívnejšie, avšak obsahovali limitované informácie. Tento článok hodnotí dôvody tohto javu a odpovedá na tieto otázky: Aký druh identity vzniká v dôsledku turbulentných politických a ekonomických zmien ako prechod spotrebiteľov z komunistickej do demokratickej krajiny? Aké typy reklám preferujú spotrebitelia ECE? Aké faktory ovplyvňujú ich rozhodovanie? Prvá časť publikácie sa zaoberá formovaním identity z akademického hľadiska.
Druhá časť príspevku analyzuje výsledky výskumu. Výskum prispieva k pochopeniu potenciálu samotného cestovania, na to, aby sa zmenil spôsob, akým sú reklamy vnímané medzi spotrebiteľmi ECE. Cestovanie a expozícia rôznym kultúram skôr v živote zmenili tendenciu spotrebiteľov ECE rozkladať transformačné reklamy. Na základe výsledkov výskumu bola navrhnutá marketingová stratégia pre zahraničné značky, ktoré chcú preniknúť na ECE trh.

Kontakt na autorov/Address

MSc Barbara Némethová DIC, MSc Strategic Marketing, Imperial College Business School, South Kensington campus, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom, e-mail: [email protected]


5. september 2018 / 11. október 2018

Špecifiká online správania sa Generácie Z

Špecifiká online správania sa Generácie Z

Pri technologických zmenách je nie len potrebné skúmať vývoj technologického prostredia, ale tiež skúmať a analyzovať zmeny v spôsobe využívania technológií a možností, ktoré technológie prinášajú užívateľmi. Rovnako ako zmeny v technologickom prostredí ovplyvňuje správanie sa ľudí, tak aj jednotlivé generácie užívateľov pristupujú rozdielne k využívaniu technológií, čo vedie k inováciám rôzneho druhu. V poslednom období sa do popredia v skúmaní medzigeneračných rozdielov dostáva Generácia Z. Generácia Z je súčasne generáciou, ktorá je vysoko aktívna na sociálnych sieťach. Práve spôsob využívania sociálnych sietí a informácií, ktoré na nich vyhľadávajú, dáva ich správanie sa do centra pozornosti obchodníkov a marketingových manažérov. Tento príspevok prezentuje pohľad na niektoré z prieskumov týkajúcich sa Generácie Z a sociálnych sietí.

Jednotlivci ale aj celé generácie sú neustále viac ovplyvňované internetom, jednotlivými nástrojmi a aplikáciami, ktoré majú vplyv na sociálne väzby ľudí a ich správanie. Koncept generácií vychádza z definovania skupiny ľudí, ktorí majú rovnaké znaky správania, a môžeme ich popísať určitým obdobím, v ktorom sa narodili (Kupperschmidt 2000). Rovnaké zvyky (aj nákupné zvyky) a sociálne správanie, ktoré je následkom vplyvu prostredia vymedzujú generácie podľa viacerých zdrojov nasledovne:
• Generácia X (1965-1979), často nazývaná aj MTV generácia, ktorú demografovia ohraničujú od začiatku až polovice 60.rokov do konca 70.rokov. Táto skupina bola ovplyvňovaná politickým dianím, je otvorená rôznorodosti a naučila sa prijímať odlišnosti v náboženskom vyznaní, sexuálnej orientácii, v rase a etnickom pôvode (Kožárová 2015). Podľa Trezovej sa títo ľudia vyznačujú, že sú otrávení, znechutení, a zažívajú dezilúziu (Terezová 2015).
• Generácia Y (1980-2000) alebo miléniová generácia je najviac ovplyvnená technologickým pokrokom, jej charakteristikou je byť online 24/7, 365 dní v roku, no hľadajú rovnováhu medzi pracovným a súkromným životom. Vyrastali vo svete, kde mohli slobodne vyjadriť názor. Najväčšou zmenou oproti predchádzajúcej generácie je oblasť komunikácie.
• Generácia Z sú mladí ľudia narodení od roku 2000, podľa niektorých autorov už od roku 1995 a vyznačujú sa vysokým vzdelaním, neustálym používaním nových technológií, sú inovatívni a kreatívni (www.ey.com 2015). Sú to deti Generácie X a Y. Nie je im ľahostajné dianie okolo seba, kriticky sa vyjadrujú, pôsobia príliš sebavedomo až arogantne.

Výskum charakteristík a správania sa Generácie Z

Téma zmien správania sa v kontexte moderných komunikačných kanálov je v centre pozornosti viacerých výskumníkov. Snažia sa svojim výskumom reagovať na dopyt podnikov a podnikateľov, ktorí analyzujú externé prostredie a chcú reagovať na vynárajúce sa zmeny. Zmeny zákazníckeho správania vytvárajú príležitosti nie len pre oblasť marketingu, ale tiež v oblasti inovácie podnikateľských modelov a identifikovania nových trhových príležitostí či pre inováciu konkurenčných stratégií (Papulová 2003). Najviac rozšírené sú dva hlavné smery analýz správania sa Generácie Z:
a) Správanie sa v kontexte technológií a vzťahu k technológiám (Zhitomirsky-Geffet 2017, Roblek 2018)
b) Správanie sa v kontexte nákupného správania s dôrazom na online prostredie (Duffett 2017, Lissitsa 2016)

Všetky uvedené výskumy potvrdzujú rozdielnosť medzi generáciami a to tak vo vzťahu k technológiám, ako aj vo vzťahu k nákupnému správaniu. Zdôrazňujú tiež potrebu osobitého prístupu ku Generácii Z a potrebu nastaviť komunikačné kanály, ako aj formu a obsah komunikácie spôsobu využívania technológií touto generáciou. Technológie nie sú pre túto generáciu takou novinkou, ako tomu bolo predtým a aj spôsob ich využívania nie je ovplyvnený výnimočnosťou, ktorá by pramenila z poznania obdobia pred existenciou moderných smart zariadení a možnosti online služieb.
Wood vo svojom výskume (Wood 2013) uvádza 4 charakteristické trendy, ktoré Generáciu Z popisujú ako konzumentov:
1) Zaujímajú sa o nové technológie,
2) vyžadujú jednoduché používanie,
3) túžia po pocite bezpečia a
4) túžia po dočasnom úniku z reality, ktorej čelia.

Podľa Schlossberga majú zástupcovia tejto generácie vyššie nároky, nie sú lojálni k značkám a zaujímajú sa viac o zážitok alebo skúsenosť (Schlossberg 2016).
Najčastejšie charakteristiky Generácie Z (Wood 2013), na ktorých sú postavené ďalšie aktuálne publikované články na túto tému:
A) Sú pripútaní k mobilným telefónom,
B) internet je ich život,
C) šikovní online spotrebitelia,
D) nedokážu sa dlho sústrediť na jednu vec,
E) chcú veľa a bez veľkej námahy a
F) budú striedať zamestnania a cestovať za prácou.

Prieskumy správania sa Generácie Z

Prieskum zverejnený v GenZ Report Findings zameral svoje zistenia o Generácii Z hlavne z pohľadu médií a lojality k značkám na ich lepšie pochopenie zo strany marketérov a spoločností zastupujúcich značky a snažil sa definovať sociálny profil Generácie Z, keďže sa očakáva, že v USA bude v roku 2020 až 40% konzumentov z tejto skupiny spotrebiteľov. Prieskum skúmal vyše 1000 respondentov vo veku 18-24 rokov v rámci USA. Výsledky tohto prieskumu (Schlossberg 2016) z decembra 2017 autori preukázali, že až 91% respondentov používa aspoň jedno sociálne médium/platformu/sieť a až 51% používa sociálnu sieť neustále. 50% respondentov využíva sociálnu sieť na interakciu s priateľmi a na vyhľadávanie informácií. Najviac používanou platformou je Facebook, nasledovaný Instagramom a Snapchatom, nemenej Pinterest, WhatsApp a Tumbir.

Pre marketérov vyplýva, že ak spoločnosti chcú zaujať týchto spotrebiteľov, je potrebné, aby reklamu umiestňovali hlavne na sociálnych sieťach. Z výskumu taktiež vyplýva, že až 90% spotrebiteľov z Generácie Z vníma reklamu na sociálnych sieťach, oproti len 29% vnímanej reklamy v televízii.
Napriek tomu, že až 77% respondentov uviedlo, že vidia v používaní sociálnych sietí viac výhod, 41% ich práve sociálne siete ovplyvňujú negatívne, cítia sa smutne až depresívne. Napriek tomu, že väčšina vidí v používaní sociálnych sietí viac pozitív, prinášajú aj nasledovné negatíva:

Tabuľka č.1: Negatíva a pozitíva sociálnych sietí
Zdroj: Spracované podľa GenZ Report findings (2018)

Sociálne siete ako marketingový nástroj majú pre túto generáciu veľký význam, reklama šírená medzi užívateľov sociálnych médií je viac vnímaná týmito spotrebiteľmi. Marketéri by mali zohľadňovať výsledky prieskumov aj v oblasti negatívnych vplyvov na užívateľov a tomu prispôsobiť marketingové formy ich oslovovania. Čoraz viac je dôležitá pozitívna skúsenosť spotrebiteľov so značkou. Ďalším znakom, ktorý tento fakt potvrdzuje je, že až 58% respondentov hľadá únik/pomoc od sociálnych sietí (Habartová 2018).
Prieskum uverejnený v Adweek (2017) potvrdzuje horeuvedený prieskum v používaní jednotlivých sociálnych sietí/médií. Medzi 1452 respondentami vo veku 13-20 rokov majú najväčšie zastúpenie YouTube, Instagram a Facebook. Dôležitým aspektom je ovplyvňovanie nákupných preferencií tejto skupiny pomocou osobností (celebrít). Najzaujímavejším výsledkom je, že až 70% respondentov sa nechá ovplyvniť osobnosťou ohľadom kúpy novej technológie v online svete a iba 21% je ovplyvnených pomocou mainstreamových marketingových nástrojov. V prípade nákupných odporúčaní, ktoré vyhľadávajú, používajú hlavne YouTube 24%, Instagram 17% a Facebook 16%.
Z najnovších prieskumov však nastáva zmena preferencií jednotlivých sociálnych sietí. Podľa Piper Jaffrey Companies (2018), medzi 8600 respondentami v priemernom veku 15,9 rokov zo 47 štátov USA, klesá preferencia Facebooku oproti minulosti až na 9% medzi tínedžermi, ktorí využívajú sociálne siete. Ich preferencia je YouTube s 59%, Snapchat 56% a Instagram 55%.
Podľa prieskumu spoločnosti Forrester Research, Inc. medzi 6634 respondentmi vo veku 18-23, je možné vidieť, akým online marketingovým nástrojom sa Generácia Z nechá ovplyvniť – vizualizácia na grafe 1.

Graf č.1: Akým marketingovým nástrojom Generácia Z verí v online svete
Zdroj: Spracované podľa Forrester Research, Inc. (2012)

Spoločnosti, ktoré chcú zaujať svojimi produktami alebo službami Generáciu Z by sa mali zamerať čoraz viac na online možnosti. Už niekoľko rokov marketéri využívajú svoje webstránky, e-mailovú komunikáciu a sociálne siete na získavanie dát o spotrebiteľoch. Ako uvádza Lenna Garribian (2013) vyše 100 marketérov, ktorí sa zúčastnili konferencie Forrester Research conference 2012 sa vyjadrilo k používaní nástrojov a získavaniu dát na oslovenie potenciálnych zákazníkov: 49% využíva analýzu webstránky, 19% e-mailovú interakciu a 12% interakciu na sociálnych sieťach. Do úzadia ustupuje využitie dát z nasledujúcich nástrojov: 8% interakcia pomocou direct mailov a SMS analýzy a analýzy hovorov. Do úzadia sa dostali printové nástroje ako kritický zdroj dát pre marketérov.
Ďalšou výzvou pre marketérov akým spôsobom využívať sociálne siete na marketingové aktivity je nárast užívateľov, ktorí dočasne alebo trvalo ukončí používanie sociálnych sietí. Podľa prieskumu Gen Z Report Findings (2018), až 18% respondentov skončí so sociálnou sieťou na základe jej prílišnej komerčnosti = prílišného reklamného priestoru, ktorý im prekáža. Na nasledujúcom grafe môžeme vidieť ďalšie dôvody takéhoto konania:

Graf č.2: Dôvody ukončenia používania sociálnych sietí
Zdroj: Spracované podľa GenZ Report findings (2018)

Pre marketérov a značky je dôležitý aj fakt, že Generácia Z, ktorá vyrastala v online priestore začína dosahovať vek, v ktorom samostatne rozhoduje o nákupných preferenciách. Podľa Gen Z Report Findings až 65% respondentov nasleduje obľúbené značky na sociálnych sieťach, z nich až 75% kvôli možnosti získať zľavu alebo špeciálnu ponuku. 57% respondentov si kúpi produkt na základe odporúčania osobnosťou a 43% respondentov zvykne nakupovať priamo cez sociálnu sieť.

Trendy v nákupnom správaní Generácie Z

Na základe týchto prieskumov môžeme identifikovať viacero trendov a odporúčaní pre marketérov v oblasti využívania sociálnych sietí na základe ich vplyvu na spotrebiteľov zo skupiny Generácie Z:
• Väčšina používateľov sociálnych sietí využíva len jednu sociálnu platformu – je potrebné využívať marketingové aktivity na rôznych sociálnych sieťach.
• Zvyšuje sa počet užívateľov, ktorí sú nepretržite online – nie je potrebné cieliť na potenciálnych užívateľov v rôznych časových obdobiach.
• Zvyšuje sa počet užívateľov, ktorí využívajú sociálne siete na vyhľadávanie informácií – je potrebné zohľadniť pri rozhodovaní o obsahovej stránke informácií o spoločnostiach a produktoch na sociálnych platformách.
• Väčšina užívateľov je viac ovplyvnená marketingovými nástrojmi v online priestore ako reklamou v televízii – prechod cielenia reklamy z televízie a rádia do online sveta.
• Zvyšuje sa počet užívateľov, ktorí sa nechajú ovplyvniť ku kúpe produktov osobnosťou na sociálnych sieťach – využitie osobností a celebrít z Generácie Z.
• Preferencia niektorých sociálnych sietí v prípade vyhľadávania nákupných odporúčaní – YouTube, Instagram, Facebook a Snapchat.
• Väčšina užívateľov sleduje obľúbené značky na sociálnych sieťach – hlavne kvôli zľavám a špeciálnym ponukám – vytvárať pozitívnu skúsenosť so značkou.
• Zvyšuje sa počet užívateľov, ktorí nakupujú produkty priamo cez sociálnu sieť.
• Zvyšuje sa preferencia nasledujúcich marketingových nástrojov v online svete – profesionálne napísané hodnotenie, hodnotenia a odporúčania zákazníkov a výsledky nesponzorovaných vyhľadávaní – potreba nájsť správnu rovnováhu medzi platenou reklamou a organickými príspevkami, dbať viac na relevanciu príspevkov ako na počet oslovených spotrebiteľov.

Tento článok nemal za cieľ komplexne prezentovať charakteristiky Generácie Z, ale prezentovať niektoré aktuálne prieskumy a zameranie výskumu v tejto oblasti a poukázať na potrebu hlbšieho skúmania charaktristík a správania sa predstaviteľov tejto generácie. Tento článok je výsledkom čiastkového zamerania širšieho výskumu zameraného na prejavy a súvislosti s nastupojúcou 4. priemyselnou revolúciu. V rámci projektu budú realizované aj vlastné prieskumy, o ktorých budeme v ďalších článkoch informovať a pokračovať tak v tejto téme.


Tento príspevok je financovaný z projektu základného výskumu: APVV-17-0656.

Literatúra/List of References

[1] adweek.com, 2017. Defy Media Acumen Survey. 2017. [online]. [cit. 2018-11-03]. Dostupné na:
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[3] ey.com, 2015. What if the next big disruptor isnt a what but a who? 2015. [online]. [cit. 2018-10-17]. Dostupné na: <www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/EY-what-if-the -next-big-disruptor-isnt-a-what-but-a-who/File/ EY-what-if-the -next-big-disruptor-isnt-a-what-but-a-who.pdf>
[4] Forrester Research, Inc., 2012. North American Technographics Online Benchmark Survey (Part1), US, Canada. 2012. [online]. [cit. 2018-10-17]. Dostupné na: <http://www.forrester.com/report/online-benchmark-survey>
[5] Garribian, L., 2013. Marketers upping the ante on big data in 2013. Infogroup Targeting Slolutions and Yesnail Interactive, 2013. [online]. [cit. 2018-10-28]. Dostupné na: <www.marketingprofs.com/chrts/2013/9904/marketers-upping-the-ante-on-big-data-in-2013>
[6] GenZ Report findings, 2018. Meet gen z: the social generation. 2018. [online]. [cit. 2018-10-28]. Dostupné na: <https://genz.hhcc.com/hubfs/Gen%20Z%20-%20The%20Social%20Generation%20%7C%20Hill%20Holliday-4.pdf?submissionGuid=e1937055-9a4a-400f-a5ab-f910a8b6fdbb>
[7] Habartová, N., 2018. Generácia X a Y. 2018. [online]. [cit. 2018-10-27]. Dostupné na: <http://medium.com/edtech-kisk/generacia-x-a-y>
[8] Kožárová, Z., 2015. Prečo sú ľudia z Generácie Y tak nešťastní? 2015. [online]. [cit. 2018-10-27]. Dostupné na: <http://psychoblogia.sk/o-generacii-y>
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[11] Papulová, E. a Papula, J., 2003. Competitive strategy and competitive advantages in small manufacturing firms. In: Management development. The source of economic growth in candidate countries. Bratislava: Faculty of management Comenius University in Bratislava, s. 1 – 8. ISBN 80-969011-2-5.
[12] Piper Jaffrey Companies, 2018. Piper Jaffray 36th semi-annual Taking Stock With Teens survey. 2018. [online]. [cit. 2018-10-27]. Dostupné na: <http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20181022005679/en/Piper-Jaffray-Copletes-Semi-Annual-Generation-Survey-8600>
[13] Roblek,V. et al., 2018. Smart technologies as social innovation and complex social issues of the Z generation. Kybernetes. 2018. [online]. [cit. 2018-10-27]. Dostupné na: <doi:10.1108/K-09-2017-0356>
[14] Trezová, L., 2015. Generácia X vs Y. Alebo akí sú tí dnešní mladí dospelí v porovnaní s nami – Generáciou X? 2015. [online]. [cit. 2018-10-30]. Dostupné na: <http://linkedIn.com/pulse/generacia-x-vs-y.alebo-aki-su-ti-dnesni-mladi-dospeli-v-porovnani-s-nami-generaciou-x>
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[16] Wood, S., 2013. Generation Z as consumers: Trends and innovation. Institute for Emerging Issues: NC State University. 2013. [online]. [cit. 2018-10-20]. Dostupné na: <https://iei.ncsu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/GenZConsumers.pdf>
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Kľúčové slová/Key Words

Generácia Z, nákupné správanie, trendy na sociálnych sieťach, využívanie sociálnych platforiem
Generation Z, shopping behavior, trends on social networks, usage of social platforms

JEL klasifikácia



Specifics of online behavior of Generation Z

In the case of technological change, it is necessary not only to explore the development of the technological environment but also to explore and analyze changes of the technology usage and the possibilities brought by the technologies. Technological changes affect the behavior of the people. On the other hand, every generation of users have different approach to the use of technologies. Both individuals and generations are increasingly influenced by the internet, individual tools and applications that affect people’s social relationships and behavior. The concept of generations is based on the definition of a group of people who have the same characteristics of behavior, and we can describe them for a certain period in which they were born (Kupperschmidt 2000). Recently, Generation Z has become to the forefront of exploring intergenerational differences.
Several surveys and presented research articles highlight the specifics and differences of Generation Z and emphasize the need for customized access to representatives of this generation. This paper presents partial results and findings of existing research articles on this topic and will be followed with own research in further papers.

Kontakt na autorov/Address

Mgr. Petronela Klačanská, PhD., Univerzita Komenského v Bratislave, Fakulta managementu, Katedra marketingu, Odbojárov 10, 820 05 Bratislava 25, e-mail: [email protected]

Mgr. Lucia Kohnová, PhD., Univerzita Komenského v Bratislave, Fakulta managementu, Katedra marketingu, Odbojárov 10, 820 05 Bratislava 25, e-mail: [email protected]


14. november 2018 / 16. november 2018

Gender and generation differences in university students’ word-of-mouth willingness

Gender and generation differences in university students’ word-of-mouth willingness

Student loyalty in the higher education sector helps college administrators to establish long-term relationships with both current and former students. Study have chosen to examine one of the components of loyalty, namely the willingness of students to spread positive information about the university. The study aimed to empirically examine the willingness of positive word of mouth communication by gender, and generation.
The study utilised a quantitative design. The survey was conducted in a private university with a population of about 2,100 students. The data were collected using convenience sampling during the winter semester of the academic year 2018/2019 in two groups of bachelor level full-time students. There were 114 usable responses.
Research has found that university’s students are mostly willing to spread positive information about their alma mater. The statistically significant differences in the willingness of positive word of mouth communication by gender were confirmed (p<.0001). We failed to reject the hypothesis about differences in gender (p=0.1708). Thus, university programs loyalty should adapt their approach, to incorporate at least gender differences.


Globalisation and market competition pressure in the education sector urge higher education institutions to increase their economic responsibility and performance continually (Watjatrakul 2014). Nevertheless, today, more than ever before, universities face enormous challenges due to the current drop in student numbers due to the attitude of potential and current students to higher education, the costs of education compared to future benefits, and last but not least by the competition of a large number of universities (Rizkallah and Seitz 2017). Student loyalty in the higher education sector helps college administrators to establish appropriate programs that promote, establish, develop and maintain successful long-term relationships with both current and former students (Annamdevula and Bellamkonda 2016). Many universities, in this context, have even approached the principles of student satisfaction’s management and measurement in order to keep them as customers as long as possible. As a result, higher education institutions in many countries are standing at crossroads and face various challenges (Štrach 2017).
Customer loyalty can be defined as a higher probability of making new and repeated purchases, spontaneously recommending a particular service provider and spreading the positive word of mouth (Tahal et al. 2017). The purpose of this study is to empirically examine the willingness of positive word of mouth communication by gender, and generation.
Several research studies have shown that measuring customer satisfaction’s management and measurement alone, without variables that have an impact on profitability or other desired outcomes, is not sufficient (Erjavec 2015). Loyalty, as a specific expression of student satisfaction, can be manifested in a variety of ways. For instance, by studying at the next level of education at the same university, by spreading positive information, by recommending university programs to others (Webb and Jagun 1997). Since research on repurchasing of university products is more appropriate for secondary research, we have chosen to examine only one of the components of loyalty, namely the willingness of students to spread positive information about the university. Thanks to it, the universities maintain a reputation and, more importantly, get new students in a completely natural way. Fact, that customer satisfaction drives word of mouth is quite straightforward and not very surprising: practically every textbook on customer satisfaction states somewhere that satisfied customers speak positively about the company whereas dissatisfied customers spread the negative word (Kraigher-Krainer et al. 2017). The scholars result also show that university provides no basis for differentiation among the constructs, but age and gender play a significant role in determining the different perceptions of students about the loyalty (Annamdevula and Bellamkonda 2016). Even though there is some evidence which suggests, that elderly consumer tend to be more brand loyal compared to younger consumers (Mathur et al. 2017). Results from surveys also show that they should be interpreted differently for men and women and loyalty programs should adapt their approach, to incorporate gender differences into loyalty reinforcing measures (Audrain-Pontevia and Vanhuele 2016).


According to the purpose of this study, to empirically examine the willingness of positive word of mouth communication by gender, and generation, two hypotheses were formulated:
• H10: There is not a statistically significant difference in the willingness of positive word of mouth communication by gender. H1A: There is a statistically significant difference in the willingness of positive word of mouth communication by gender.
• H20: There is not a statistically significant difference in the willingness of positive word of mouth communication by generation. H2A: There is a statistically significant difference in the willingness of positive word of mouth communication by generation.
The study utilised a quantitative design. The survey was conducted in a private university with a population of about 2,100 students. The data were collected using convenience sampling during the winter semester of the academic year 2018/2019 in two groups of bachelor level full-time students. There were 114 usable responses, which represent 95% of the sample. The respondents’ demographic data (see Table 1) showed that male students represented 44.74% of the sample (N=51) and female students represented 55.27% of the sample (N=63). Table 1 also presents the structure of the respondents by generation.

Table 1: The structure of the respondents by gender and generation
Source: Author

Paper and pencil interviewing were used for data collection. Respondents willingness of positive word of mouth communication were examined on three items with the questions as follows: To what extent do you agree or disagree with the statements “I say positive things about my university to other people (furthermore WoMC1). I recommend my university to someone who seeks my advice (furthermore WoMC2). I encourage friends and relatives to do a study at my university (furthermore WoMC3).” Seven points Likert scale was used to collect the answer with responses from “agree” (7 points) to “disagree” (1 point).
Used questions came from Zeithaml and Berry (1996) scale and were part of a 13 items set proposed for measuring a wide range of behavioural intentions. Also, they were used for instance as a validity measure of OFFSERVSENT questionnaire (Thelen et al. 2011) or in the negative word of mouth form to measure direct effects of anger and dissatisfaction on behavioural responses (Bougie et al. 2003).
Reliability of the scale items was checked, by calculation of internal reliability Cronbach alpha coefficient, because of the version translated to the Slovak language was used. The coefficient alpha for the reliability of the entire set was 0.8748. Table 2 shows coefficients for individual items. According to several authors the range reliability can be regarded as excellent if alpha > 0.9, good if alpha > 0.8, acceptable if alpha > 0.7, questionable if alpha > 0.6 and uncertain if alpha is > 0.5. According to the results, the reliability of the scale was acceptable.

Table 2: Correlation matrix of word of mouth communication willingness items
Source: Author

Overall word of mouth communication willingness (furthermore WoMCW) index was calculated as follows: WoMCW = (WoMC1+WoMC2+WoMC3)/3.
For choosing a right comparison method, Shapiro-Wilk W normality test was used to determine if normal distribution models a data set. As Table 3 shows, Shapiro-Wilk W test rejects the normal distribution hypothesis for all dataset (p<.0001), and also for partial data set tests. After that non-parametric Wilcoxon / Kruskal-Wallis Tests were used to verify stated hypotheses.

Table 3: The results of normality tests
Source: Author

The data were analysed using SAS JMP14 software. The described methodology has some limitations. Firstly, it is not easy to generalise results because of convenience sampling procedures were being used. Secondly a perceived lack of privacy or confidentiality, because of paper and pencil questionnaire, could cause response bias because of fear from reprisal. Thirdly, only two generations were compared because of the selected sample. This research has been applied to a specific university. The research should be expanded to other institutions offering higher education.


As Table 4 presents, there are some mean value differences in the word of mouth communication willingness. While men showed willingness with a rating around value 5.4, women with a rating around value 6.4. The revealed rating could mean that willingness of men is different from women. As the table also shows, the resulting p-value test (p < 0.0001) means, that we reject hypothesis H10, and after that, we can consider the differences between willingness by gender as statistically significant.

Table 4: Word of mouth communication willingness (WoMCW) by gender
Source: Author

As Table 5 presents, there are some mean value differences in the word of mouth communication willingness. While Generation Y showed willingness with a rating around value 5.8, Generation Z with a rating around value 6.1. The revealed rating could mean that the willingness of Generation Y is different from Generation Z. As table also shows, the resulting p-value test (p = 0.1708) means, that we failed to reject hypothesis H20, and after that, we cannot consider the differences as statistically significant.

Table 5: Word of mouth communication willingness (WoMCW) by generation
Source: Author


Institutions of higher education are increasingly moving towards including a student relationship perspective in their strategic planning, which makes student loyalty a central aspect of any market strategy (Helgesen and Nesset 2011). Although the literature on the topic of customer satisfaction and loyalty is very rich, there are only a few studies on loyalty from students’ perspective in higher education (Shahsavar and Sudzina 2017).
Research has found that university’s students are mostly willing to spread positive information about their alma mater. The statistically significant differences in the willingness of positive word of mouth communication by gender were confirmed. We failed to reject the hypothesis about differences in gender.
The study provides, for managers, a practical overview regarding variables affecting students’ loyalty. Research has found that university’s students are mostly willing to spread positive information about their alma mater. However, in order to gain the willingness to disseminate positive information about the university, management must not forget other stakeholders. Matching the students’ needs and wants cannot slip into the benevolence in exams, teaching or an overall lack of quality.

Literatúra/List of References

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Kľúčové slová/Key Words

higher education institution, loyalty, word of mouth, gender, generation
vysokoškolská inštitúcia, lojalita, od úst k ústam, rod, generácia

JEL klasifikácia

M31, I23


Ochota študentov ústne šíriť dobré meno univerzity v závislosti od rodu a generácie

Budovanie lojality umožňuje univerzitám nadviazať s dlhodobé vzťahy o súčasnými a bývalými študentmi. Štúdia sa rozhodla preskúmať jednu zo zložiek lojality, konkrétne ochotu študentov šíriť pozitívne informácie o univerzite. Konkrétne, jej cieľom bolo empiricky preskúmať rozdiely v ochote pozitívnej komunikácie podľa rodu a generácie respondenta.
Štúdia využívala kvantitatívny dizajn. Prieskum sa uskutočnil na súkromnej vysokej škole s počtom študentov približne 2100. Údaje boli zhromaždené pomocou dotazníkového prieskumu v priebehu zimného semestra akademického roka 2018/2019 v dvoch skupinách denných bakalárskych študentov. K dispozícii bolo 114 použiteľných odpovedí.
Výskum zistil, že študenti sú väčšinou ochotní šíriť pozitívne informácie o svojej alma mater. Štatisticky významné rozdiely v ochote pozitívnej ústnej komunikácie podľa pohlavia boli potvrdené (p <.0001). Nepodarilo sa však odmietnuť hypotézu o rozdieloch v rode (p = 0.1708). Preto by univerzitné programy lojality mali prispôsobiť svoj prístup, minimálne začleniť do svojich stratégií rozdiely medzi mužmi a ženami.

Kontakt na autorov/Address

doc. PhDr. Zoltán Rózsa, PhD. Vysoká škola ekonómie a manažmentu verejnej správy v Bratislave, Furdekova 16, 851 04 Bratislava, e-mail: [email protected]


20. november 2018 / 22. november 2018

Využitie multimediálnych výskumných laboratórií v praxi. Časť I.

Využitie multimediálnych výskumných laboratórií v praxi. Časť I.

Príspevok akcentuje význam inovácií výučby predmetov orientovaných na aktívnu participáciu vysokoškolských študentov na reálnych projektoch v previazanosti na spoluprácu so subjektmi hospodárskej praxe, a to vďaka využitiu potenciálu multimediálnych výskumných laboratórií v kontexte využitia nových prístupov vo výučbe, akým je napríklad tzv. design thinking. Aktuálne trendy vo vysokoškolskom vzdelávaní zdôrazňujú zmeny vo výučbe zamerané na zvyšovanie uplatniteľnosti absolventov na trhu práce aj v kreatívnej ekonomike, do ktorej oblasti spadá aj marketing, marketingová komunikácia a reklama.

Úvod – výzvy a modernizácia výučby

Európa má dlhú a silnú tradíciu vysokého školstva. Jeho korene siahajú až do 6. storočia, kde sa neskôr rozvinuli do stredovekého univerzitného vzdelávania založením Bolonskej univerzity v roku 1088. V 19. storočí navštevovali univerzity približne 2% populácie, ktoré mali to privilégium študovať vysokú školu. V súčasnej dobe je situácia úplne odlišná. Európska únia si stanovila cieľ, aby do roku 2020 40% mladých Európanov získalo vysokoškolský titul. Už teraz sa v niektorých krajinách pohybuje miera mladých s vysokoškolským vzdelaním vyše 50% populácie krajiny. Tento cieľ však vedie k tomu, že tradičné vzdelávacie modely už nedokážu zabezpečiť kvalitné vysokoškolské vzdelanie (European Commission 2013).
Podľa dokumentov Európskej komisie čelia európske vysokoškolské systémy výzvam a problémom, ku ktorým patria predovšetkým:
• Nesúlad medzi potrebnými zručnosťami a tými skutočnými. Pri niektorých vysoko kvalifikovaných profesiách sa Európa stretáva s nedostatkami, a to tak z hľadiska dostupnosti týchto kvalifikácií, ako aj z hľadiska kvality potrebných zručností. Zároveň príliš veľa študentov končí svoje štúdium s veľmi zlými až nedostatočnými prierezovými zručnosťami, ktoré v súčasnosti potrebujú v praxi.
• Pretrvávajúce alebo dokonca zväčšujúce sa sociálne rozdiely. Deti zo znevýhodneného sociálno-ekonomického prostredia majú stále oveľa menšiu šancu, že začnú a úspešne ukončia vysokoškolské štúdium; stále tiež pretrváva rodová segregácia podľa odboru štúdia.
• Nedostatočná podpora inovácií. Mnohé vysoké školy neprispievajú dostatočne k inováciám vo svojom širšom ekonomickom a sociálnom prostredí, najmä vo svojich regiónoch, tak, ako by mali. Výkonnosť vysokoškolských inštitúcií v oblasti inovácií sa síce medzi jednotlivými krajinami a regiónmi EÚ výrazne líši, ale celkovo nie je ani zďaleka uspokojivá.
• Rôzne zložky vysokoškolských systémov spolu dobre nespolupracujú. Mechanizmy financovania, stimulov a odmien vo vysokom školstve nie sú vždy nastavené tak, aby dostatočne odmeňovali kvalitnú výučbu a podporovali výskum, inovácie, sociálne začleňovanie (Koucký 2017).
Hlasy hovoriace o nutnosti zmien vo vzdelávaní zaznievajú čoraz častejšie. Inštitúcie formálneho vzdelávania čelia veľkým problémom, vzdelávanie v neformálnej sfére je na vzostupe. Podľa štúdie autorov Barbera, Donnelly a Rizvi (2013) spolupráca s aktérmi neformálneho vzdelávania, problém evaluácie vzdelávania a vzdelávania pre zamestnateľnosť patria medzi oblasti, ktoré si vyžadujú najväčšie zmeny. Za najväčší problém označuje spomínaná štúdia úpadok hodnoty vysokoškolského vzdelania, pretože iba 18% širokej verejnosti verí, že univerzity sú schopné adekvátne pripraviť svojich študentov na vstup na trh práce.
Učenie a výučba vo vysokom školstve je zdieľaný proces, ktorý predpokladá istú mieru zodpovednosti a participácie tak na strane študenta, ako i učiteľa. Správa Európskej komisie sumarizovala kroky a odporúčania vedúce k modernizácii vysokého školstva, z ktorých je možné uviesť nasledujúce:
• učebné plány a osnovy by sa mali rozvíjať prostredníctvom dialógu medzi pedagógmi, študentmi, absolventmi a aktérmi na trhu práce, ktorí spoločne hľadajú nové metódy tak, aby študenti získali relevantné zručnosti pre svoju lepšiu uplatniteľnosť,
• vysokoškolské inštitúcie by mali zaviesť a podporiť prierezové zručnosti a interdisciplinárne prístupy k učeniu a pomáhať tak študentom rozvíjať ich podnikateľské a inovatívne spôsoby myslenia,
• vysoké školy a tvorcovia národných politík by mali zriadiť poradenstvo, odborné vedenie, mentoring a systémy na podporu vysokoškolských študentov (European Commission 2013).
V súčasnej dobe vysokoškolské vzdelávanie ovplyvňujú trendy a tendencie súvisiace predovšetkým s technologickým rozvojom, zvyšujúcimi sa nárokmi na absolventov zo strany zamestnávateľov. K tým najvýraznejším patrí:
• vzdelávanie vedúce k prehĺbeniu kľúčových kompetencií, zručností a postojov študentov (mäkkých zručností),
• podpora podnikateľských aktivít študentov,
• mobilita, internacionalizácia študentov i pedagógov vysokých škôl,
• online vzdelávanie, mooc (Massive Open On-line Courses),
• učenie činnosťou (Learning by doing),
• užšia spolupráca so súkromným sektorom,
• celoživotné vzdelávanie (Popela, Fischer a kol. 2015).

Spolupráca vysokoškolských inštitúcií a firiem – vybrané aspekty európskej praxe

Existuje mnoho foriem spolupráce vysokoškolských inštitúcií a firiem, pričom ich podobu ovplyvňuje celý rad faktorov, napríklad potreby a možnosti partnerov, množstvo dostupných zdrojov, personálne zabezpečenie atď. Medzi najčastejšie formy spolupráce patrí výskum realizovaný v spolupráci s firmami, zákazkový výskum, komercionalizácia výsledkov výskumu, konzultanstvo, zdieľané laboratória, ďalšie vzdelávanie, spolupráca pri tvorbe študijných programov a profilu absolventa, stáže a prax študentov, vedenie študentských prác či účasť odborníkov z praxe na priamej výučbe (Škopová 2007).
Spolupráca podnikov a vysokých škôl predstavuje benefit nielen pre samotné podniky a školy, ale aj región, v ktorom sa nachádza. Z tohto dôvodu nadobúda úloha vysokých škôl v posledných rokoch na význame. V 70. rokoch minulého storočia vznikol koncept triády – triple helix model, ktorý je založený na princípe kooperácie a koordinácie troch základných oblastí spoločenského progresu. Tento model predstavuje spojenie akademickej, verejnej a súkromnej sféry. Významnú úlohu tu zohráva inovačný potenciál vysokých škôl, ktorý má pozitívny vplyv na rozvoj podnikov, ktoré nútia vysoké školy k tvorbe nových poznatkov (Ručinská a Ručinský 2009).
Triáda je založená na sieti vzťahov vysokej školy, priemyslu a vlády, ktorá je základom ekonomického rozvoja znalostí (tzv. znalostná ekonomika alebo znalostná spoločnosť). V triáde sú všetky základné oblasti rovnocenné. Primárnou úlohou je produkcia a prenos informácií, vedomostí a znalostí v spolupráci s podnikateľskou sférou, ktorá je konečným zákazníkom, pretože je hlavným zamestnávateľom ľudského kapitálu za účelom pridávania hodnoty a tvorby bohatstva. Koncept triple helix je súčasným stupňom vývoja foriem spolupráce vysokých škôl a podnikov, podporovaných vládami ako oblasť verejného záujmu a verejnej finančnej podpory (Zelený 2006).
Európska komisia podporuje spojenie vysokoškolského vzdelávania a podnikania na európskej úrovni prostredníctvom viacerých iniciatív. Užšie väzby medzi praxou a akademickou sférou môžu podporovať prenos a zdieľanie znalostí, vytvárať dlhodobé partnerstvá a príležitosti a podporovať inovácie, podnikanie a tvorivosť. Užšia spolupráca s podnikmi pomáha inštitúciám vysokoškolského vzdelávania rozvíjať prístupy k výučbe a výučbový proces tak spĺňa potreby študentov i spoločnosti. To pomáha poskytnúť absolventom správne zručnosti pre trh práce (European Commission 2015).
V roku 2010 vydala Európska komisia dokument Európa 2020 – Stratégia na zabezpečenie inteligentného, udržateľného a inkluzívneho rastu, v ktorom definuje ciele pre členské štáty, medzi ktorými je aj „zlepšiť spoluprácu medzi univerzitami, výskumnými centrami a podnikmi, realizovať spoločné programy“, ako aj „zabezpečiť, aby sa učebné osnovy sústredili na podporovanie kreativity, inovácie a podnikania“ či zabezpečiť, „aby znalosti nevyhnutné na začlenenie sa do ďalšieho vzdelávania a trhu práce boli získané a uznané v rámci všeobecného, odborného, vyššieho vzdelávania ako aj vzdelávania dospelých” (Európska komisia 2010).
Štúdia University-Business Cooperation 2017 prezentuje výsledky online výskumu medzi vysokými školami v 33 európskych krajinách a subjektmi z praxe. Výskum monitoruje súčasný stav spolupráce vysokoškolských inštitúcií so subjektmi z aplikačnej sféry a porovnáva situáciu v Európe so situáciou v jednotlivých členských krajinách. Výskumu sa zúčastnilo 14 318 zástupcov vysokoškolského vzdelávania za všetky vybrané európske krajiny, v prípade zástupcov firiem bolo získaných 3 113 odpovedí. V tabuľke č. 1 sú prezentované rôzne formy spolupráce vysokoškolských inštitúcií a subjektov hospodárskej praxe a hodnotenie ich využívania tak z pohľadu vysokých škôl, ako aj z pohľadu aplikačnej sféry v rámci Slovenskej republiky, Českej republiky a európskeho priemeru.

Tabuľka 1: Porovnanie spolupráce univerzít a firiem
Zdroj: State of University-Business Cooperation (2017)

Prakticky pri všetkých parametroch Slovensko i Česká republika zaostávajú za európskym priemerom. Paradoxne, vysoké školy hodnotia spoluprácu skeptickejšie v konfrontácii s firemnými zástupcami. V prípade jednotlivých hodnôt je potrebné uviesť, že čím nižšia hodnota, tým je spolupráca hodnotená minimálne a naopak, pričom rozpätie je od 0 po 10 bodov.

Kreatívna ekonomika a design thinking

Rozmach kreatívnej ekonomiky možno pozorovať vo vyspelých krajinách, kde dochádza k úbytku pracovných miest v priemyselných odvetviach a ich presunu do oblasti služieb a kreatívnych činností. Významnými stakeholdermi kreatívnej ekonomiky sú kreatívne firmy, tvorcovia politiky, podnikateľskej spoločnosti, výskumné inštitúcie a tiež inštitúcie vyššieho vzdelávania. V rozvoji kreatívnej ekonomiky hrajú významnú úlohu vysoké školy, ako miesta s vysokou koncentráciou kreatívnych, inovatívnych ľudí so schopnosťou prinášať nové riešenia. Je teda potrebné sa zaoberať ich zapojením, vplyvom a významom pre kreatívnu ekonomiku. Problematikou kreatívnej ekonomiky sa zaoberá rad autorov. K tým najvýznamnejším patrí Howkins a Florida. Howkins bol prvým autorom, ktorý použil pojem „kreatívna ekonomika“, a to vo svojej knihe The Creative Economy. Druhý propagátor tejto myšlienky – Florida, ako prvý pomenoval problematiku kreatívnej triedy a zostavil index kreativity (Kloudová a kol. 2010). V dnešnej dobe mnoho podnikov usiluje o prispôsobenie sa globalizácii, ktorá priniesla tvrdší konkurenčný boj na mnohých trhoch a viedla k outsourcingu produkcie z „lacných krajín“ (Kathman 2002).
Podniky na celom svete, ktoré chcú zostať konkurencieschopné, sú nútené byť viac inovatívne a prispôsobiť sa rozširujúcemu sa vedomostnému priemyslu. Na vysoko konkurenčných trhoch, kde je nevyhnutná extrémne efektívna výroba, tradičné podnikateľské modely a prístupy už nemusia stačiť. Radikálny rozvoj a vzostup komunikačných technológií mení konvencie podnikania. Zákazníci majú k dispozícii viac informácií, zatiaľ čo sú sami vystavení oveľa väčšiemu počtu ponúk ako predtým. Tradičný monológ medzi spoločnosťami a zákazníkmi sa zmenil na výmenu informácií a názorov, pričom sa trendy objavujú paralelne a celkové tempo je oveľa rýchlejšie. Obchodníci sú svedkami fragmentácie trhov a je pre nich stále ťažšie oslovovať alebo ovplyvňovať svoje cieľové skupiny. Dnešné spoločnosti teda potrebujú zvýšiť rýchlosť a diferenciáciu vo vývoji výroby a predovšetkým konkurenčné reakcie. Aby podnikateľské subjekty boli konkurencieschopné, musia začleniť kreativitu a inovácie do svojho fungovania, a tým pomôcť vzostupu konceptu kreatívnej ekonomiky (Gullberg a kol. 2006). DeNatale a Wassall definujú tvorivú ekonomiku ako naprieč prepojenú množinu troch vzájomne sa ovplyvňujúcich oblastí. Prvky kreatívnej ekonomiky sú tvorba kreatívnych klastrov (komerčné aj nekomerčné firmy a organizácie), kreatívne pracovné sily (kreatívni jedinci) a kreatívne spoločenstvo (miesto, ktoré vytvára podmienky pre tvorivú ekonomiku) (DeNatale a Wassall 2007).
Kreatívna ekonomika je založená na kreatívnom priemysle (mediálny priemysel, film, hudobný priemysel, výskum, kultúrny priemysel). Jej rozvoj bude mať značný vplyv na budúci ekonomický rast vo vyspelých štátoch sveta. Predpokladom pre rozvoj kreatívnej ekonomiky je znalosť spoločnosti v oblasti informačných a komunikačných technológií s dôrazom na rozvoj kreativity. Odvetvia v rámci kreatívnej ekonomiky je možné zoskupiť aj prostredníctvom tzv. prístupu na základe kreatívnej intenzity, podľa ktorého sa odvetvia zoskupujú podľa ich príbuznosti do siedmych kategórií a to: Reklama a marketing; Architektúra; Dizajn a módny dizajn; Film, TV, video, rádio a fotografia; IT, softvér a počítačové služby; Vydavateľská činnosť; Hudba, scénické a vizuálne umenie (Balog a kol. 2014). Mieru rozvoja kreatívnej ekonomiky spája Florida (2002) s investíciami do výskumu a vývoja a podporou univerzitných systémov. Práve univerzity hrajú významnú úlohu pri výchove talentov a kreatívnych jedincov (Kloudová a kol. 2010).

Koniec I. časti.


Príspevok vznikol v rámci projektu KEGA č. 030STU-4/2018 – Elektronická platforma na zefektívnenie spolupráce medzi vysokými školami a priemyselnými podnikmi v oblasti vzdelávania.

Literatúra/List of References

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[2] Barber, M., Donnelly, K. a Rizvi, S., 2013. An avalanche is coming: higher education and the revolution ahead. In: Pearson, s. 1-71, 2013. [online]. [cit. 2018-07-26]. Dostupné na: <http://med.stanford.edu/smili/support/FINAL%20Avalanche%20Paper%20110313%20(2).pdf>
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[8] Florida, R. L., 2002. The rise of the creative class: and how it’s transforming work, leisure, community and everyday life. New York: Basic books, 2010. ISBN 0-465-02476-9.
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[10] Howkins, J., 2013. The creative economy: how people make money from ideas. London: Penguin Books, 2013. ISBN 978-0-14-197703-4.
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Kľúčové slová/Key Words

vzdelávanie, kreatívna ekonomika, design thinking, multimediálne výskumné laboratórium, marketing
education, creative economy, design thinking, multimedia research laboratory, marketing

JEL klasifikácia



The utilisation of multimedia research laboratories in practice. Part I.

The paper emphasizes the importance of the innovations in the teaching of subjects focused on the active participation of university students on real projects within the liaison to cooperation with the subjects of economic practice, based on utilisation of the potential of multimedia research laboratories in the context of the use of new approaches in teaching such as design thinking. Current trends in higher education emphasize changes in teaching oriented on increasing the employability of graduates in the labour market, as well as in the creative economy, which includes marketing, marketing communication and advertising.

Kontakt na autorov/Address

Mgr. Romana Čočková, Ph.D., Univerzita Tomáše Bati ve Zlíně, Fakulta multimediálních komunikací, Ústav marketingových komunikací, Univerzitní 2431, 760 01 Zlín, Česká republika, e-mail: [email protected]

prof. Mgr. Peter Štarchoň, PhD., Univerzita Komenského v Bratislave, Fakulta managementu, Katedra marketingu, Odbojárov 10, 820 05 Bratislava, e-mail: [email protected]

Mgr. Lucia Vilčeková, PhD., Univerzita Komenského v Bratislave, Fakulta managementu, Katedra marketingu, Odbojárov 10, 820 05 Bratislava, e-mail: [email protected]


10. október 2018 / 25. október 2018