Charakteristika generácií slovenských spotrebiteľov

Charakteristika generácií slovenských spotrebiteľov

Príspevok sa zaoberá typológiou rôznych generácií spotrebiteľov, ich špecifickými črtami a vlastnosťami ktoré ich profilujú a odlišujú. Znalosť generácií spotrebiteľov je jedným z predpokladov správnej segmentácie, je kľúčovým identifikátorom pri oslovovaní reálneho i potenciálneho spotrebiteľa. V marketingu sa práve o generáciách intenzívne diskutuje a kladie sa na ne veľký dôraz. Preferencie jednotlivých generácií vplývajú na ich nákupné správanie, ale reálne ho ovplyvniť vyžaduje dôkladnú znalosť oslovovanej generácie a často aj špecifík, ktoré súvisia s vývojom v jednotlivých krajinách. Príslušníkov každej generácie marketéri často spájajú s konkrétnymi produktmi, hovoria o špecifických vlastnostiach, správaní a charakteristikách. V článku sa však čitateľ dozvie aj to, nakoľko je charakteristika generácií presná, či a prečo jestvujú medzigenerácie a aká typológia sa najčastejšie používa v Slovenskej republike.

Úvod

Problematika generácií je jednou z najdôležitejších tém moderného marketingu. Identifikovať, ktoré generácie máme a môžeme osloviť produktom, ktorý už máme alebo sa len chystáme uviesť na trh znamená vedieť ako osloviť tých zákazníkov, ktorých chceme získať. Problematika generácií je relatívne mladá, autori R. Hill, E. Williams, D. V. Bergh či M. Behrer, K. M. Wallace začali publikovať svoje skúmania až začiatkom tohto tisícročia. Špecifikom problematiky generácií je, že každý autor uvádza iný časový rámec u jednotlivých generácií a nie je možné uchopiť ani zhodu v ich psychologickom profile. Napriek tomu sa idea rozčlenenia populácie na jednotlivé generácie ujala a táto typológia je v súčasnosti uznávaná a často citovaná. Pracujú s ňou podnikoví analytici v oblasti marketingu, personalisti, psychológovia i predajcovia. Jej význam prakticky nik nespochybňuje, ale až v súčasnosti problematika príslušnosti k určitej generácii nadobúda praktický význam. Preto je potrebné urobiť výskum v oblasti teórie a porovnať základné charakteristiky generácií, systematizovať poznatky upozorniť na dôvody vyšpecifikovania jednotlivých generácií a disproporcie, ktoré vznikali v jednotlivých krajinách. Problematike je potrebné venovať sústredenú pozornosť najmä kvôli tomu, že typológiu generácií začali marketéri používať najmä vo vzťahu k segmentácii trhu. Pomenovať význam preferencií a požiadaviek zákazníkov ako príslušníkov jednotlivých generácií vyžaduje presne vedieť ako charakterizovať jednotlivé generácie spotrebiteľov a aj to, že v jednotlivých krajinách ovplyvnil vývoj zákazníckych preferencií nielen rok narodenia, ale aj politický a ekonomický vývoj v danej krajine. Preto, okrem požívanej typológie generácií X, Y a Z, ktorú používajú najmä americkí a západoeurópski autori, bolo potrebné, aby sa autor článku zaoberal aj tým, čo ovplyvnilo vývoj v Československu a v Slovenskej republike a upozornil na význam medzigenerácií, ktoré, rovnako, ako samotné generácie, majú vlastné charakteristické vlastnosti a modely správania sa. Cieľom článku je predstaviť a charakterizovať generácie a medzigenerácie slovenských spotrebiteľov, upozorniť na ich špecifiká a načrtnúť členenie, ktoré je možné používať v našom prostredí.

Tabuľka 1: Vybrané členenie generácií
Zdroj: vlastné spracovanie

U jednotlivých rokov neexistuje zhoda, preto rozdelenie generácií ich názvy i časové ohraničenia môžu iné zdroje uvádzať inak. Ako sme už uviedli, tradičné členenie generácií vzniklo na americkom kontinente. Výskumy týkajúce sa generácií sa týkali najmä ich vzťahu k moderným technológiám a ich využívaniu. Preto sú v praxi využívané najmä v technologických odvetviach.

Tradičné členenie generácií

Generácia „X“ je prvou technologickou generáciou. Technológie sa začali objavovať v priebehu jej života, čo nadobudlo význam najmä z pohľadu marketingu. Prejavilo sa to otvorenosťou voči tradičným, rovnako ako aj voči moderným spôsobom komunikácie (Hill 2002, s. 62). Napriek tomu sa „generácia X“, nenechá ľahko ovplyvniť reklamou a kúpu produktov zvažuje z hľadiska moderných trendov i z hľadiska toho, čo im kúpa produktu zabezpečí. Pre firmy je potrebné jednoznačne definovať dôvody, pre ktoré by si mali spotrebitelia tejto generácie ich produkty kúpiť. V opačnom prípade sa môže stať, že stratia zákazníkov z tohto segmentu a tejto generácie. Medzi ďalšie charakteristiky týkajúce sa nákupného správania generácie X patrí uprednostňovanie praktického dizajnu a nižšej ceny. Pri nákupe sa príslušníci tejto generácie riadia svojim vlastným rozumom a veľký význam pripisujú skúsenostiam a referenciám od známych či priateľov (Wallace et al. 2014, s. 50). Vyznačujú sa vysokou lojalitou a ochotou zaplatiť za svoju obľúbenú značku viac. Generáciu „X“ možno považovať za ideálnu cieľovú skupinu, segment na získanie celoživotného zákazníka. To však platí len ak podnik ponúka vysoko kvalitné produkty a služby, ktoré od nej zákazníci požadujú. V porovnaní s mladšou generáciou je ich ochota skúšať nové značky nižšia.

Medzi ďalšie charakteristiky generácie „X“ patrí, že:
• uprednostňujú osobný alebo telefonický kontakt,
• nákup produktov dlho zvažujú a snažia sa nájsť to najlepšie za pre nich prijateľnú cenu,
• radi nakupujú značkové produkty,
• uprednostňujú prácu pred zábavou,
• hľadajú zmysel (skrytý význam) aj tam, kde na prvý pohľad nie je, či nie je evidentný.

Ku charakteristikám tejto generácie ešte patrí otvorenosť a ovplyvniteľnosť. Je to generácia, ktorá má dospelé deti a zvyčajne aj vnukov a práve pri používaní či nákupe technológií si dá od nich poradiť, preto pri oslovení tejto generácie je potrebné zvážiť aj tento faktor.
Generácia „Y“. Ide o mladých ľudí, ktorí sa narodili v osemdesiatych rokoch 20-teho storočia, na čom sa zhodne aj väčšina autorov. Definovať kedy sa toto obdobie končí už tak jednoznačné nie je. Používanie moderných komunikačných prostriedkov je u tejto generácie na dennej báze, preto sa pre nich stala každodenná a internetová komunikácia prirodzenou súčasťou života. Rozmach moderných technológií, ktorý súvisí so smartfónmi a s nástupom sociálnych sietí posunul možnosti online komunikácie na vyššiu úroveň (Bergh a Behrer 2012, s. 21). Výsledkom je tvorba moderných sietí a sociálnych médií bez lokálnych hraníc. Generácia „Y“ sa nepotrebuje učiť na čo slúžia tieto technológie, vie ich intuitívne používať a v digitálnej spoločnosti sa cíti komfortne. Ide o generáciu, ktorá má prístup k obrovskému množstvu informácií a vyžaduje ich, chce ich však selektovať. Táto generácia je zároveň kritická voči reklame a všemožným informácia na internete. Pozitívnou črtou Generácie „Y“ je zvýšená tolerancia voči príslušníkom iných národností a rás multikulturalizmus je jej vlastný. Prístup k informáciám z akéhokoľvek miesta ich istým spôsobom profiloval, preto mnohí experti považujú práve generáciu „Y“ za rozmaznanú a lenivú.

Medzi ďalšie charakteristiky generácie „Y“ patrí, že:
• formovala ich optimistická výchova v rodine,
• majú dobré a kvalitné vzdelanie doma či v zahraničí,
• uprednostňujú investície do zážitkov pred kúpou tovaru (ak kúpa tovaru nie je sama o sebe zážitok),
• sú sebavedomí, občas prehnane sebavedomí až drzí,
• radi skúmajú nové trendy.

Ide o generáciu, ktorá vyrástla v demokracii, ktorá poznamenala aj ich rodinné vzťahy, tie sú obyčajne otvorené a priateľské. Predstavitelia tejto generácie sú dynamickí, radi skúmajú nové veci a trpezlivo sa vzťahujú voči starším generáciám, ktoré technológie nevedia používať.
Generácia „Z“ je celkom iná ako predchádzajúce generácie „X“ a „Y“. Ide o mladých ľudí, tínedžerov a je to, zatiaľ, technicky najvyspelejšia generácia. Táto generácia sa zžila s modernými technológiami a predstavitelia tejto generácie sú neustále „prilepení“ k obrazovkám všetkého druhu.
Pre ľudí z generácie „Z“ nie je vôbec ťažké riešiť niekoľko úloh naraz, ak popri práci alebo učení majú priestor aj zábavu. Nemajú predsudky voči rôznym rasám, etnikám pod podmienkou, že je zachovaný ich spôsob života (Seemiller a Grace 2016, s. 164).
Na druhej strane, predstaviteľov generácie „Z“ do problémov dostáva prehnané sebavedomie často hraničiace s aroganciou, keď si myslia, že všetko vedia, všetko počuli a všetko videli. Sú zvyknutí na prevažne elektronickú komunikáciu, aj knižné publikácie čítajú len na internete. Stretnutia tvárou v tvár však nie sú ich silnou stránkou.

Medzi ďalšie charakteristiky generácie „Z“ patrí:
• aktívne využívanie moderných technológií,
• budovanie sociálnych kontaktov a vzťahov prostredníctvom sociálnych médií,
• tímová práca – so svojimi rovesníkmi – často na diaľku,
• multitasking – zvládajú viac úkonov naraz,
• zábava a zároveň práca,
• potreba nezávislosti – túžia po nezávislosti, ale zároveň nevedia ako sami postupovať
• svoje myšlienky a názory zdieľajú s celým svetom – strata súkromia, život na internete,
• chýbajúce základné zručnosti a skúsenosti.

Vzhľadom na to, že táto generácia ešte nie je striktne vyprofilovaná vo vzťahu k zákazníckym preferenciám, nie je jednoduché uchopiť ich nákupné správanie. Produkty, ktoré nie sú na internete, pre nich nejestvujú. Majú požiadavku, aby práca bola pre nich zároveň zábavou a sú schopní a ochotní skúšať nové veci či vymyslieť nové povolanie, len aby to dosiahli.

Prechodné generácie alebo medzigenerácie

Predstavili sme čitateľovi klasické členenie generácií, ktoré publikovali americkí a západoeurópski autori v priebehu tohto tisícročia. Na prvý pohľad je však jasné, že takéto členenie nie je vyčerpávajúce a profil jednotlivých generácií nie je dokonalý, oprieť sa o takýto profil pri plánovaní nemusí znamenať správne zacielenie marketingových aktivít. V Európe po 2. svetovej vojne dochádzalo k prudkým a špecifickým zmenám, ktoré sa ale líšili od procesov, ktoré ovplyvňovali povojnovú generáciu v USA. Klasické rozdelenie generácií už nepostačovalo, bolo potrebné ísť do väčšej hĺbky a uchopiť aj medzigeneračné rozdiely a rozdiely týkajúce sa jednotlivých krajín európskeho kontinentu.
Generácia „Baby Boomu“ je označenie početnej generácie ľudí narodených vo svete nasledujúcej po 2. svetovej vojne. Ako naznačuje názov tejto generácie je to veľmi početná generácia, narodila v čase ekonomickej prosperity a rastu, preto neušla pozornosti výskumníkov (Cheung 2007, s. 88). Je to generácia, ktorá ovplyvnila generáciu „X“ a, ako sme naznačili, je veľmi priebojná a prispôsobivá. Baby Boomeri sú spájaní s postojmi, ktoré sami menili, prípadne nanovo si ich vytvárali, preto sú predstaviteľmi nových i tradičných hodnôt. Generácia Baby Boomers vyrastala v období dramatických zmien. V Československu ide o generáciu, ktorá „budovala socializmus“ a trhové vzťahy a ich fungovanie začala „objavovať“ až po roku 1989. Keďže nejestvujú žiadne výskumy zacielené na túto generáciu, obyčajne sa zovšeobecňujú poznatky o nákupnom správaní tejto generácie ako keby špecifiká vývoja nejestvovali. O generácii Baby Boomerov sa hovorí, že vo vzťahu k marketingu je síce opatrná, je však náchylná veriť reklamám. Ak si vybuduje určité preferencie, je často voči „svojim“ produktom a značkám lojálna, aj keď dôvody lojality môžu byť veľmi rôznorodé. Vzhľadom na početnosť tejto generácie je stále objektom marketingového výskumu. Príslušníci tejto generácie majú tendenciu preferovať domáce značky a výrobky. Pokúsime sa teda načrtnúť špecifiká správania sa tejto generácie v podmienkach SR.
Môžeme hovoriť o nasledujúcich charakteristikách generácie „Baby Boomu“:
• orientujú sa na tradičné produkty a služby, sú, zvyčajne etnocentrickí,
• preferujú vlastnú skúsenosť pred cudzou (veria len referenciám od rodiny a príbuzenstva) a aj preto uprednostňujú domáce značky a produkty,
• sú lojálni k tým produktom a značkám, ktoré roky používajú,
• sú šetrní a neradi investujú do nových vecí.

Táto generácia moderné technológie neodmieta, ale má často problémy s ich používaním. Je preto označovaná za konzervatívnu a šetrnú, je predstaviteľkou tradičných hodnôt. Uvedená generácia je však natoľko početná, že neosloviť ju pokladajú marketéri za chybu a stratu lojálnych zákazníkov.

Generácia „Husákových detí“

Táto generácia sa narodila v Československu v rokoch 1974 až 1979. Je to označenie pre generáciu narodenú v silnej populačnej vlne v čase tzv. „normalizácie“, začiatkom 70. rokov 20. storočia. Meno tejto generácie je odvodené od vtedajšej hlavy štátu, prezidenta Gustáva Husáka (Stratégie 2015).
„Husákove deti“ (pozn. [1]) sú generácia, ktorá časť života prežila v dobe socialistickej normalizácie. Zažila revolúciu v roku 1989 a následne využila príležitosti, ktoré jej nadobudnutá sloboda ponúkla. Táto generácia je istým spôsobom špecifická, keďže ide o generáciu, ktorú je možné vzťahovať len na Československo. Je možné konštatovať, že vykazuje určité spoločné znaky s generáciou „Y“, má však aj nesporné odlišnosti, pretože príslušníci tejto generácie vyrastali v rôznych podmienkach a formovali ich rozdielne možnosti i hodnoty. Príslušníci generácie Husárových deti boli formovaní tak, aby žili svoj život, ktorý má však mať určitý, predpísaný poriadok. V súlade s hodnotami bolo potrebné dokončiť školu, získať vzdelanie, zamestnať sa, založiť si rodinu, zaobstarať si bývanie.
Práve z dôvodu takejto výchovy vznikajú rozdiely medzi „Husákovými deťmi“ a generáciou „Y“ alebo „mileniálmi“ (o tejto medzigenerácii sa budeme zmieňovať neskôr). Iné generácie či medzigenerácie už neboli tak striktne usmerňované a viazané týmito hodnotami (Denník N 2017).
U tejto generácie dochádza k postupnému prehodnocovaniu toho, čo sa musí a čo nemusí. Zmenili sa hodnoty, ale prehodnotiť ich, zmeniť alebo zavrhnúť vyžadovalo určitú mieru vzdoru a aj schopnosti presadzovať iné vnímanie hodnôt a spôsobu života. Inými slovami, táto generácia musela vedieť ako sa právať za pochodu, počas toho, ako sa menila situácia a podmienky v ich okolí. V dospelosti bolo pre nich náročnejšie nájsť si nových priateľov a kolegov. Sú považovaní na pracovitých, prispôsobivých a často aj za dynamickú generáciu. Význam tejto generácie pre marketing je nepochybný, v súčasnosti ide o najsolventnejšiu, rozumej najbohatšiu, generáciu.
Ak by mal autor uvažovať o ďalších charakteristikách generácie „Husákových detí“, nepochybne by medzi ne patrilo:
• vážia si slobodu, alebo ju naopak zneužívajú,
• sú otvorení voči novým možnostiam, vedia sa im prispôsobiť, ale vytvárajú aj nové príležitosti,
• sú citliví na otázky životného prostredia a orientujú sa v technológiách,
• radi nakupujú produkty podľa svojho vlastného štýlu (módy),
• uprednostňujú prácu pred zábavou,
• preferujú značkové produkty, nie však za každú cenu, sú citliví na ceny.

Generácia „mileniálov“

Uchopiť charakteristické znaky tejto generácie nie je jednoduché, lebo nie je presne dané, kto do generácie „mileniálov“ patrí. Väčšinou sú to príslušníci generácie „Y“ a v menšej miere aj generácie „Z“. Sú to ľudia narodení v rokoch 1980 až 1999 a je to generácia, ktorá sa mierne odchyľuje od klasických charakteristík generácie „Y“ a „Z“ (whatis.techtarget.com 2018). Mileniáli, ako príslušníci svojej generácie, majú nelichotivú povesť medzi zamestnávateľmi a firmami. Bývajú často nespokojní so svojim zamestnaním, snažia presadzovať zmeny na pracovisku bez ohľadu na názory šéfa, vyžadujú od zamestnávateľa bonusy a benefity, obyčajne viac dovolenky a slobody, flexibilný pracovný čas či prácu z domu. Ich túžba po slobode a nezávislosti sa prejavuje aj mimo práce, v domácom prostredí a v kontakte s priateľmi (Howe a Strauss 2009, s. 54). Ide o individualistov ktorí, mávajú problémy s autoritami.
„Mileniáli“ sú však generáciou, ktorá vyrastala s technológiami a rýchlo sa s technológiami zžila. Z pohľadu marketingu a nákupného správania nemajú mileniáli problém minúť aj vyšší finančný obnos za kvalitné produkty, často sú to tzv. „značkoví“ ľudia. Online nakupovanie im nerobí problémy a vedia sa orientovať v hodnoteniach internetových predajcov. Sú to často vzdelaní mladí ľudia, ktorí však majú problém nájsť pre nich vhodnú prácu, hlavne kvôli ich vysokým nárokom. Neradi sa viažu a rodinu zakladajú, v porovnaní s predchádzajúcimi generáciami, obyčajne neskôr.
Špecifiká tejto generácie vo vzťahu k vývoju v Československu nie je možné uchopiť, ale systematický výskum aj tu chýba. Len sa predpokladá, že rozdiely v nákupnom správaní „mileniálov“ v zjednotenej Európe sú minimálne.
V nasledujúcom obrázku zo spomínaných generácií absentuje generácia „Husákových detí“, keďže nik nezmapoval ich generáciu z hľadiska výdavkov. Napriek tomu ponúkame graficky znázornené výdavky spotrebiteľov podľa generácií, ktoré sme predstavili. Na obrázku môžeme pozorovať postupné zmeny preferencií zákazníkov, ako aj to, na čo míňajú svoje peniaze.

Graf 1: Výdavky spotrebiteľov podľa generácií
Zdroj: upravené podľa Bank of America Merrill Lynch (2019) a Eurostat (2018)

Generácia „snehových vločiek“

O tejto generácii zatiaľ nie je možné nazhromaždiť porovnateľné informácie. Je to generácia, ktorá nasleduje po generácií „milenálov“, pretože sa narodila po roku 2001. Prečo sa o najmladšej generácií hovorí práve o „generácii snehových vločiek“? Termín „snehové vločky“, odkazuje na deti zabalené do bavlnky s tým, že týmto deťom nie je nič dosť dobré. Je to generácia, ktorej pomenovanie odkazuje na originalitu a individualitu, keďže každá snehová vločka je jedinečná a neopakovateľná. Predstaviteľov tejto generácie niektorí autori označujú ako prehnane citlivú a zameranú samu na seba (Kroc a Přinosilová 2017), čo ale vzhľadom na ich vek nie je nič výnimočné, pretože príslušníci tejto generácie sú ešte, zvyčajne, školopovinní a ich učitelia ich označujú za netrpezlivých a zle znášajúcich kritiku. Otvorene sa hovorí o generácii rebelov, ktorej nie je nič dosť dobré, nie je s ničím spokojná a rada všetko kritizuje. Istým spôsobom sú však tieto výhrady charakteristické pre všetkých mladých ľudí, preto túto generáciu pokladať za vyprofilovanú ešte nie je dosť dobre možné. Snaha uchopiť preferencie „snehových vločiek“ je však pre firmy veľmi dôležitá. Začínajú si totiž uvedomovať, že táto nová generácia nebude možno chcieť robiť to, čo predchádzajúce generácie a bude mať iné preferencie a želania.
To, čo autor môže jednoznačne konštatovať je, že generácia „snehových vločiek“ bude určite dotknutá pokračujúcim rastom globálnej populácie a nástupom nových technológií – bio a nanotechnológiami. Tie sa presadia v priebehu jej života. Otázkou je, do akej miery sa presadí stratégia 4.0. Sú to totiž predstavitelia generácie „snehových vločiek“, ktorí budú konfrontovaní so spoločenskými zmenami, ktoré prinesie automatizácia a robotizácia, teda so stratou veľkého množstva pracovných miest a vznikom nových povolaní. Environmentálne problémy, o ktorých predchádzajúce generácie len „hovorili“ sa stanú, zoči voči dôsledkom globálneho otepľovania, realitou a tak práve originalita, kreativita a presadzovanie nových prístupov bude jedným z faktorov, ktoré túto generáciu budú profilovať. Vo vzťahu k nákupnému správaniu je zrejmé, že táto generácia ešte nie je vyprofilovaná, dá sa však predpokladať určitý ústup od hodnôt konzumnej spoločnosti.
Faktorov, o ktorých sa dá uvažovať, že budú mať vplyv na názory a charakteristiky tejto generácie je veľmi veľké množstvo, preto sa o generácii „snehových vločiek“ zatiaľ, len uvažuje.

Generácia „alfa“

Aj napriek tomu, že ešte nevieme uchopiť profil a charakteristiku generácie „snehových vločiek“ vznikol už názov pre nasledujúcu generáciu, ktorá sa môže, ale nemusí vyprofilovať inak ako „snehové vločky“. Skupina ľudí narodených po roku 2010 je označovaná ako Generácia „alfa“. Táto generácia, nasleduje po generácií „milleniálov“ a „snehových vločiek“. Nepozná svet pred technologickým boomom, ktorý so sebou priniesol počítače, internet, herné konzoly, wifi, mobilné telefóny a digitálne médiá. Deti z tejto generácie sú stále v predškolskom veku, technológie, v istom slova zmysle, ovplyvnili vnímanie tejto generácie. Predpokladá sa, že generácia „Alfa“ sa do využívania technológií úplne ponorí a nebude si bez nich už svoj život vedieť predstaviť. Na rozdiel od predchádzajúcich generácií, ktoré boli iba používateľmi technológií, príslušníci tejto generácie, pravdepodobne, vymenia aj „tradičné“ hodnoty – nezáleží na tom či východné alebo západné – za globálne a technologické znalosti. Táto nová generácia nebude premýšľať o technológiách ako o nástroji, bude integrovať technológie neobyčajným spôsobom do svojich životov, píše český teoretik Ján Cupák (Cupák 2015).
Marketéri si už dnes môžu položiť otázku aká generácia alfa vlastne bude? Odhaduje sa, že sa dožije najvyššieho veku a bude aj najbohatšia. Je ale dosť možné, že bude, podľa vzoru rodičov, otvorená multikulturalite a bude odmietať rôzne stereotypy (Rajničová 2019). Táto generácia je zatiaľ ešte v príliš mladom veku na to, aby bolo možné o nej uviesť niečo viac. V každom prípade pôjde o generáciu, ktorá bude hľadať svoju identitu a možnosti uplatnenia. Je možné, že splynie s generáciou „snehových vločiek“, ale aj to, že bude mať vlastnú charakteristiku a modely správania sa.

Záver

Cieľom článku bolo predstaviť a charakterizovať generácie tak, ako ich predstavujú zahraniční autori, upozorniť na význam medzigenerácií a vyšpecifikovať, či je možné hovoriť o špecifických generáciách u slovenských spotrebiteľov. Autor sa pokúsil načrtnúť medzinárodné, ale aj vlastné členenie a tie charakteristiky generácií, ktoré je možné využívať v našom prostredí. Urobil tak najmä preto, že absentuje systém špecifikácie generácií, keďže konkrétni autori sa vždy zaoberajú len jednou, alebo dvomi generáciami, čo je pochopiteľné vzhľadom na ich jedinečné znaky a porovnateľné údaje. V bežnom živote i v trhovom prostredí sa však vyžaduje znalosť základných charakteristík a profilu generácií, čo podmieňuje správnu segmentáciu s ambíciou prinášať nové inovatívne riešenia ako osloviť cieľovú skupinu zákazníkov. Vyššia znalosť toho, kto sú Vaši zákazníci, prináša možnosť odhaľovať doteraz nepoznané perspektívy a využívať nové možnosti. Len postupne si u nás začíname uvedomovať, aký veľký a nevyužitý potenciál má znalosť jednotlivých generácií a ako môže firmám pomôcť pri získavaní zákazníkov, ktorých si chceme udržať.

Poznámky/Notes

[1] Jediný systematický výskum takto označenej generácie robila TNS Slovakia Lifestyle. Z neho sme vyselektovali generáciu Husákových detí. Vzorku tvorilo 51% mužov a 49% žien. Spracované podľa: https://strategie.hnonline.sk/media/781856-aka-je-dnes-generacia-husakovych-deti.

Literatúra/List of References

[1] Bank of America Merrill Lynch – Business Solutions, 2019. Spending by generation. 2019. [online]. [cit. 2019-02-13]. Dostupné na: <https://www.bofaml.com/content/boaml/en_us/home.html>
[2] Bergh, D. V. J. a Behrer, M., 2012. Jak cool značky zůstavávají hot. Brno: Bizbooks, 2012, s. 21. ISBN 978-80-265-0002-5.
[3] Cupák, J., 2015. Rodí sa nová generácia posadnutá technológiami: Generácia Alfa. Bratislava: eTrend, 2015. [online]. [cit. 2019-02-12]. Dostupné na: <https://www.etrend.sk/technologie/rodi-sa-nova-generacia-ktora-zmeni-svet-generacia-alfa.html>
[4] Denník N, 2017. Husákove deti sú najšťastnejšou generáciou. Budú aj najlepšou? 2017. [online]. [cit. 2019-02-12]. Dostupné na: <https://dennikn.sk/942836/husakove-deti-su-najstastnejsou-generaciou-budu-aj-najlepsou/>
[5] Eurostat, 2018. Electricity production, consumption and market overview. European Union. 2018. [online]. [cit. 2019-02-13]. Dostupné na: <https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Electricity_production,_consumption_and_market_overview>
[6] Hill, R., 2002. Managing Across Generations in 21st Century: Important Lessons from the Ivory Trenches. In: Journal of Management Enquiry. 2002, 11(1), s. 60-72. ISSN 1056-4926.
[7] Howe, N., Strauss, W., 2009. Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation. New York: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2009, s. 54. ISBN 9780307557940.
[8] Cheung, E., 2007. Baby Boomers, Generation X and Social Cycles. USA: Longwave Press, 2007, s. 88. ISBN 9781896330068.
[9] Klačanská, P. a Kohnová, L., 2018. Špecifiká online správania sa Generácie Z. In: Marketing Science and Inspirations. 2018, 13(4), s. 21-28. ISSN 1338-7944.
[10] Kroc, V. a Přinosilová. J., 2017. Po mileniálech přicházejí sněhové vločky. Přehnaně citlivá a sebestředná generace. Praha: iRozhlas, 2017. [online]. [cit. 2019-02-12]. Dostupné na: <https://www.etrend.sk/ekonomika/zabudnite-na-milenialov-nastupuje-slubna-generacia-alfa.html>
[11] Rajničová, V., 2019. Zabudnite na mileniálov. Nastupuje sľubná generácia Alfa. Bratislava: eTrend, 2019. [online]. [cit. 2019-02-12]. Dostupné na: <https://www.etrend.sk/ekonomika/zabudnite-na-milenialov-nastupuje-slubna-generacia-alfa.html>
[12] Rózsa, Z., 2018. Gender and generation differences in university students’ word-of-mouth willingness. In: Marketing Science and Inspirations. 2018, 13(4), s. 29-35. ISSN 1338-7944.
[13] Seemiller, C. a Grace, M., 2016. Generation Z Goes to College. USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2016, s. 164. ISBN 978-1119143451.
[14] Stratégie, 2015. Aká je dnes generácia „Husákových detí“. 2015. [online]. [cit. 2019-02-13]. Dostupné na: <https://strategie.hnonline.sk/media/781856-aka-je-dnes-generacia-husakovych-deti>
[15] Wallace, K., M. et al., 2014. The Generation X Librarian. North Carolina, USA: McFarland, 2014, s. 50. ISBN 9780786486113.
[16] whatis.techtarget.com, 2018. Millennials (Generation Y). 2018. [online]. [cit. 2019-02-13]. Dostupné na: <https://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/millennials-millennial-generation>

Kľúčové slová/Key Words

generácie, segmentácia, zákaznícke preferencie, nákupné správanie
generation, segmentation, customer preferences, consumer shopping behavior

JEL klasifikácia/JEL classification

M31

Résumé

Characteristics of Slovak consumers generations

The contribution deals with the typologies of different generations consumers, their specific features and characteristics, which they profiled. Knowledge of consumer generations is one of the assumptions of good segmentation, is a key identifier in reaching out to both the real and potential consumers. In marketing, the generations are being intensely debated and very much emphasis is placed on them. The preferences of each generation affect their purchasing behavior, but only thorough the knowledge of the generation addressed and often the specifics related to the country developments, it is possible to beneficiate and to influence them. The members of each generation of markets often associate with specific products, they talk about specific characteristics and behavior. However, in the article, the reader also learns how the characteristics of generations are accurate, whether and why there are intergenerational and what typologies are most commonly used in The Slovak Republic.

Kontakt na autorov/Address

Mgr. Samuel Smolka, PhD., Univerzita Komenského v Bratislave, Fakulta managementu, Katedra marketingu, Odbojárov 10, 820 05 Bratislava, e-mail: [email protected]

Recenzované/Reviewed

21. február 2019 / 22. február 2019




Promotion of products in retro-designed packaging

Promotion of products in retro-designed packaging

Retailers follow the trend of retro marketing and offer traditional products in retro-designed packaging to attract customers. The trend for retro marketing and packaging is something that re-occurs at regular intervals over successive time periods. This paper analyses consumer reactions (e.g. noticing, locating) to the promotion of products in retro-designed packaging. The example of Lidl retail chain promotion of products in retro-designed packaging is further described. It is to be introduced as a best practice in the Czech market.

Introduction

Retro marketing is an essential aspect of retail marketing. Retailers base the promotion on the nostalgia, and they expect interest of their customers in the products connected with the past. Retro-designed packaging supports this activity. Retailers repeat the offer of products in retro-designed packaging. The effectiveness of this marketing activity is based on the efficacy of the products’ promotion.
The paper aims to analyse the best practice of promotion of products in retro-designed packaging. Firstly, we interpret the results of research into the promotion of products in retro-designed packaging; specifically, we focus on noticing the products in this type of packaging and its localisation, including gender and age differentiation. Moreover, we analyse the informational sources, again divided by gender and age distributions. A survey was conducted to obtain customer opinion in which respondents were personally interviewed on the basis of a structured questionnaire. Basic descriptive statistics were used for interpretation purposes, and data in contingency tables were tested by Pearson’s Chi-square test. According to the results, products in retro-designed packaging were noticed the most in Lidl retail chain. Therefore, this paper also introduces a brief overview of the Lidl promotion activities. This example was developed mainly on secondary data.

Techniques of promotion in retail

Retailer deals on the B2C market, but uses different promotion techniques from the producer. Use of promotion techniques in retail follows the specifics of retailing, which are the basis of the direction of retail marketing. Retailing is a specific marketing discipline defined as, „a set of business activities that add value to the products and services sold to consumers for their personal or family use“ (Levy and Weitz 2009, p. 6). That is the reason why retailers promote, not only the product itself, but the added value as well. Retailing is focused on „marketing activities designed to provide satisfaction to final consumers and to profitably maintain those customers through a programme of continuous quality improvement” (Hasty and Rardon 1997, p. 11). Therefore, the marketing objectives or promotion objectives are concentrated on customer satisfaction and customers’ shopping experiences. A variety of promotional techniques and tools support the achievement of these goals. Regarding that, integrated marketing communication is an essential attribute of successful retail marketing (Lieskovská and Petrovčíková 2018, p. 11).
The retail marketing mix is based on an extensive variety of decisions. Retailers design the brand image and define pricing, promotion or location strategies. They are interested in philanthropic initiatives and CSR, level of service offered and coherent shopping. They apply tools and techniques of merchandising, visual merchandising, public relations and social media communication. Retailers offer customer loyalty programmes and take care of the physical environment and ambience to improve the customer experience. A lot of attention is focused on the „people” factor and the offer of private-label brands (Chaudhary 2016, p. 13).
Armstrong (Armstrong et al. 2017, p. 369) presents the connection between retail strategies and the application of the retail marketing mix (included product assortment and services, retail price, promotion, distribution/location), which form the basis of value creation for targeted retail customers. Retailers can use various combinations of the five promotion tools: advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, public relations and direct/social media marketing. The importance of online marketing is according to Dietrich (2017, p. 8) based on the „simplicity and clarity” as well as „quick response”. It can help the retailer to be much more interactive. On the other hand, Hasty (Hasty and Reardon 1997, p. 11) adds visual merchandising instead of direct/social media marketing; whereas, Lusch et al. (2011, p. 389) present only four promotion types in retail – advertising, sales promotions, publicity and personal selling.
Advertising tools in retail are mostly ads in newspapers, magazines, radio and TV, leaflets and catalogues. Personal selling supports relationships, monitoring, and the satisfaction of customers’ needs. Sales promotion uses price reductions, in-store demonstrations, displays or loyalty programmes. Public relations activities in retail are new-store openings, special events, newsletters and blogs, store magazines and public service activities. Direct/social media marketing employs websites, digital catalogues, online ads and video, mobile ads and apps, blogs and e-mail (Armstrong et al. 2017, p. 375). However, it is possible to identify many new tools or techniques, such as interactive screens, LED walls, holographic displays, smart posters and interactive floors and so on. Marketing tools or techniques are linked to many retail marketing disciplines – in-store marketing, retail merchandising, visual merchandising and shopper marketing, for example.
In-store marketing is „sales promotion at a retailer’s location, with bundled offers, expert advice, product demonstrations, product samples and special discounts, etc.” (businessdictionary.com 2017). In-store marketing includes POP materials, merchandising, sampling promotion, sensory marketing, and other promotion tools in the location (Hesková et al. 2017, p. 73).
Retail merchandising is defined as a „specific practice that a retailer employs to accomplish the sale of a product to a customer” (Chaudhary 2016, p. 179). Retail merchandising is, not only the arrangement of merchandise on the shelf; it is, also, the process of developing, acquiring, displaying, pricing, promoting and communicating the retailer’s merchandise. The most effective way of promoting is visual merchandising, which is „the presentation of a store and its merchandise in ways that will attract the attention of potential customers” (Levy and Weitz 2009, p. 527). Visual merchandising uses a wide variety of presentation techniques. In the case of products in retro-designed packaging, it is possible to introduce idea-oriented presentation, based on a specific idea or the image of the store. The retailer wants to present the good old times to his customers and evoke feelings of nostalgia, a positive feeling linked to the past (Goulding 2002, p. 544). All products in retro-designed packaging are arranged together on one shelf.
The retailer, offering products in retro-designed packaging, promotes and supports these products’ sales even before shoppers visit their store. It appeals to the shoppers (not necessary consumers) using promotion tools of shopper marketing and, thereby, affects shopper behaviour to generate a purchase decision (Stahlberg and Wille 2012, p. 1). Shopper marketing builds the customer experience in the pre-purchase, purchase and post-purchase phases. Pre-purchase marketing is focused on advertising, public relations or direct/social media marketing; whereas, in the purchase phase the most essential tools are sales promotion or personal selling. The relationship with consumers is developed in the post-purchase phase through loyalty programmes, customer service or direct/social media marketing.

Methodology

This paper aims at analysing consumer behaviour and introducing the best practice of promotion of products in retro-designed packaging.
Firstly, we interpret the results of research into the promotion of products in retro-designed packaging; specifically, we focus on noticing the products in this type of packaging and its localisation, including gender and age differentiation. Moreover, we analyse the informational sources, again divided by gender and age distributions. Lastly, the paper introduces practical activities undertaken by Lidl retail chain to highlight the most frequent customers’ evidence of retro-designed products.
The survey took place from May to July 2017 and, during which, respondents were personally interviewed using a structured questionnaire as a basis for gathering information. Surveyors used CAPI (Computer Assisted Personal Interview) to collect representative data from 9 districts of the Czech Republic, from each of which came 11,1% respondents on average (SD 0,6). The survey resulted in 1012 valid responses with age and gender distribution following the National Statistical Office data.
Results were processed in statistical package R (R Core Team 2017) and basic descriptive statistics were used for interpretation. Data in contingency tables were tested by Pearson’s Chi-square test (χ2 test) with the level of significance of 95% (p-value < 0,05). The second part of this paper introduces a brief overview of the Lidl retailer chain activities to illustrate an example of used techniques connected with retro-designed packaging. The information is based on secondary data and observation of online communication activities. More in-depth research needs to be undertaken to introduce Lidl retail chain communication activities in details.

Questionnaire survey

First, the respondents were asked whether or not they had ever recognised or registered any products in retro-designed packaging. Questioners showed respondents a picture of products in retro-designed packaging – examples of both food and non-food products available in retail chains. Interestingly, 773 respondents out of 1012 (more than 75%) said they were aware of and had registered these products. The following results were collected solely from those respondents who had noticed some form of retro-designed packaging. Due to the content of the questions, percentages are related to this filtered number of respondents (n=773). Graph 1 shows the summary of answers to the question of asking where they had seen a product or products in retro-designed packaging. It was an open question with a possibility to state more than one answer. The main results include (in frequency order) Lidl retail chain, with more than 60% (494; 63,91%) respondents, Kaufland (122; 15,78%) and Penny Market (97; 12,55%). The same number of respondents stated other chains and also, similarly, replied that they could not remember the specific retailer, who was selling these products. Other retail chains were mentioned less than 60 times (8%).

Graph 1: Noticing of the products in retro-designed packaging (n=773, frequencies in %) Source: authors

The Lidl retail chain was mentioned in an extreme difference. It can be based on the connection with so-called „Retro Week” offered by this chain and built linking between this promoted offer and memory of respondents. As this retailer is the only one which supports the retro-designed products by special techniques regularly, this link is more than probable. Therefore, the extreme number of answers is not assessed as a distortion. Graph 2 also focuses on the place, but from the gender perspective. The results show that 60,84% (188) out of 309 men noticed the products in retro-designed packaging in Lidl. Similarly, 65,95% (306) of 464 women also saw these products in the same retail chain. Other results are also very balanced between the genders: 16,83% of men and 15,09% of women saw retro-designed packaging in Kaufland, 11,65% of men and 13,15% of women in Penny Market, 9,39% of men and 6,03% of women in Albert, 4,85% of men and 4,74% of women in Billa, 5,5% of men and 2,59% of women in Tesco, 3,56% of men and 3,66% of women in Globus, 2,59% of men and 2,16% of women in the COOP and 2,59% of men and 1,29% of women in Norma. The differences are not statistically significant (χ2 p-value > 0,05). The only statistically significant differences between men and women occurred in Tesco retail chain, as the place where retro-designed packaging was noticed (χ2 p-value = 0,03666), and also between men and women who do not remember the retailer’s name (χ2 p-value = 0,03224). However, both significant differences might be explained by lower amounts of respondents in particular groups.

Graph 2: Noticing of the products in the retro-designed packaging divided by gender (nmen=309, nwomen=464, frequencies in %)
Source: authors

Table 1 introduced the results from the age perspective. The more meaningful results (above 15%) are visible in darker grey, the lower relative frequencies (under 5%) are highlighted in a lighter grey. The bold font of p-values indicates statistically significant differences. Respondents, from all age categories, noticed products in retro-designed packaging in the Lidl retail chain the most often. As the table shows, the least noticing were in Globus, COOP, and Norma: in all age categories, these were mentioned by the lowest numbers of respondents. Interestingly, almost 75% of the third age group (35-44) stated Lidl, and moreover, with the highest frequency, they were able to connect the products in retro-designed packaging with a specific retail chain. On the other hand, the highest number of respondents, who were not able to recall the name of the retail chain, was from the last age category (respondents older than 65 years), which might be explained by respondents in that age group having a worse memory.
The overall results may also be influenced by shopping behaviour, which was not assessed in the survey as the main focus was on remembering the connection of certain retail chains with particular retro-designed products.

Table 1: Noticing of the products in the retro-designed packaging divided by age categories (n=773, frequencies in %)
Source: authors

The questionnaire survey, also, aimed at the recognition of the information sources, i.e. promotional techniques from the retailer’s point of view. Only 773 respondents, who recognised the retro-designed packaging, were asked to pick more than one answer from a list of offered possibilities.
Graph 3 shows that leaflet advertising (425; 54,98%) was the most frequent answer given followed by: TV advertising (310; 40,10%), in-store promotion (152; 19,66%), online advertising (69; 8,93%), out-of-home advertising (16; 2,07%) and radio advertising (4; 0,52%). Almost 18% (139; 17,98%) had not seen any promotional techniques being offered. Only one respondent, actually admitted that he/she did not remember the source of information about products in retro-designed packaging.

Graph 3: Information sources of products in retro-designed packaging (n=773, frequencies in %)
Source: authors

Graph 4 shows the results divided by gender. All the results are very similar – men and women notice promotional techniques in a similar way. The only major difference between men and women can be seen in the category of leaflets where the difference is statistically significant, having a 95% level of significance (χ2 p-value = 0,005305).

Graph 4: Information sources of the products in the retro-designed packaging divided by gender (nmen=309, nwomen=464, frequencies in %)
Source: authors

The following Table 2 introduces informational sources from an age perspective. The higher numbers (above 25%) are shown in darker grey, the lower numbers (under 5%) in light grey. The bold font indicates a statistically significant result. Three types of answers were not tested by Pearson’s χ2 test, as they contain zero frequencies and, therefore, they do not meet all requirements for testing.
As the table shows, the most frequent answer, by all age categories, was „leaflet advertising”. However, TV advertising was, also, stated by the first four age categories in more than 45% cases. Interestingly, older respondents (older than 55), not only indicated TV advertising less often, but they did not recall any promotional techniques in most cases. As could be expected, online advertising was mostly mentioned by younger respondents; older respondents (from 55 years) stated online advertising in less than 6% cases. This fact can be mainly explained by information about general internet usage as reported by the National Statistical Office (Český statistický úřad 2017). While younger respondents use the internet in 90% cases, only 28% of older respondents use the internet regularly. Although the differences cannot be assessed as statistically significant on the set level of significance (95%), this can be still accepted as an important variance.

Table 2: Information sources of products in retro-designed packaging divided by age categories (nmen=309, nwomen=464, in %)
Source: authors

The Lidl retail chain and „Retro Week” – a brief overview of activities

As it ensues from the results of the research, Lidl was assessed to be a retailer associated with retro-designed products by more than 60% of respondents. For this reason, the following part of this paper focuses on promotional techniques used in this retail chain.
The Lidl retail chain focuses its special offers around different topics every week; one of which being the so-called, „Retro Week” whereby products in retro-designed packaging are offered. This week was introduced, for the first time, in June 2015 (mistoprodeje.cz 2017). Since then, Lidl regularly at approximately six-monthly intervals, has been offering retro-designed products (akcniletaky.com 2017).
To promote the week, Lidl introduces a special leaflet called „Retro Week”, which is available in both, printed and online versions (akcniletaky.com 2017). The printed version is distributed to consumers, and it is, also, available in a stand in the sales area – placed near an exit area in the week before the sales, or close to the entrance during the time of the special offer.
The online version of the leaflet is made available at many different portals, which introduce the whole selection of special offers available by a range of retail chains (e.g. kupi.cz, najdislevu.cz, letakomat.cz, iletaky.cz, kompasslev.cz, akcniletaklidl.cz, aktualniletaky.cz, akcniletaky.com) and, also, on the Lidl website (www.lidl.cz), where a new offer is published every week. In September 2017, an e-shop (www.lidl-shop.cz) was established where selected non-food products could be purchased directly. A leaflet, showing all of their products, is also presented there.
Information about retro-designed products is spread, not only by leaflets but also by using banners or social media, such as Facebook or YouTube. For example, the Lidl Facebook published a post about „Retro Week” from 2nd to 8th October 2017. It had been shared 71times and it had received 816 reactions (likes). Moreover, the status stimulated communications, with 84 comments being made within the 1st week (facebook.com 2019).
Furthermore, a video was published on YouTube on 29th September 2017 and it had 102 628 viewers. The commercial is also available in a TV version. It highlights three chosen products from the many special offers available during the Retro week (youtube.com 2017).
While „Retro Week” runs, an idea-oriented presentation is applied in which the products are arranged on one shelf in the part of the sales area of the shop, where the specially offered products are commonly placed. The place is, usually, at the back part of the shop on the left side. The products are typically placed on demountable racks, but other types of unique visual displays, e.g. shelf boards with a picture of the retro-designed packaging, special Point-of-Purchase tools, shelf wobblers, posters, stickers or labels on the floor, patterns of the retro-designed product’s packaging etc., are not used.
To summarise it, we need to refer to previous sections of this article. The visible tools are assessed, and the results show a substantial impact on the respondents. Lidl regularly applies the whole range of shopper marketing activities; in the pre-purchase phase, TV advertising and online communication (direct/social media marketing) are published and leaflets are distributed; in the purchase phase there are no special displays, but leaflets are available in the shops, and an idea-oriented presentation/placement is used; in the post-purchase phase, people can react in social media, where they often comment on their experiences, send pictures etc. Therefore, the connection of this retail chain and its visible marketing techniques are highlighted.

Conclusions

This paper aimed at analysing consumer behaviour and introducing the best practice of promotion of products in retro-designed packaging.
We interpreted partial results of primary marketing research, which focused on noticing the products in retro-designed packaging and its localisation, including gender and age differentiation. Moreover, we analysed the informational sources, again divided by gender and age distributions. Lastly, the paper introduced practical activities undertaken by Lidl retail chain to highlight the most frequent customers’ evidence of retro-designed products.
The paper shows the importance of retro marketing and the possibilities of usage of promotion tools. The main conclusions relate to consumer behaviour. More than three-quarters of the respondents noticed the retro editions in the shops. Lidl retail chain was mentioned the most often. Although the survey did not concentrate on shopping habits and we were not able to filter the influence of subjective preferences, the difference between Lidl retail chain and other retailers was significant enough to describe it as relevant.
From the gender point of view, the women noticed these products more often than men, but this difference was not statistically significant. Other results, also, did not show significant differences. The only exceptions being the Tesco chain, which was stated mainly by men, and that women less often connected retro-designed packaging with any retailer. Although these results were statistically significant, they could also be a result of the lower number of respondents in those cases. In terms of age distributions, very balanced results were produced. However, statistically significant differences are seen between the Lidl and Kaufland assessments. It is worth considering, however, that the reason for the age differences could also be due to the respondents’ overall shopping habits, which were not assessed by this research as mentioned above.
We also analysed sources of information about retro-designed products. Leaflet and TV advertising were followed by an in-store promotion. Interestingly, many respondents were not able to name any form of promotion. Both men and women noticed all forms similarly; the only statistically significant difference being in the case of leaflet advertising where women saw it more often than men. Age distribution does not show statistically significant differences, except for TV advertising, which, surprisingly, was not noticed so often by older respondents. Differences can be seen, also, in online communication: however, they cannot be assessed as statistically significant using the set level of significance.
The final part of the paper focused on the specific example of marketing communication techniques applied in the Lidl retail chain during their, so-called, „Retro Week” when the retro-designed products are on special offer. The „Retro Week” and connected promotions, can be evaluated as successful, regarding the presented results of the survey. Other retail chains do not offer products in retro-designed packaging in such a strategic way; which may be the reason why the products are not noticed so often in those stores; even though those retailers do offer them in their product range. This fact brings out opportunities for further research into the efficiency of promotion techniques, which will be undertaken in the near future.

Poznámky/Notes

This paper is one of the outcomes of the grant research No. IGS02C1 „Recent and retro brand perception of the chosen products” at the Faculty of Economics, University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice.

Literatúra/List of References

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Kľúčové slová/Key Words

advertising, merchandising, promotion in retail
reklama, merchandising, marketingová komunikace v retailu

JEL klasifikácia/JEL classification

M31, F19

Résumé

Marketingová komunikace produktů v retroobalech

Retaileři následují trend retro marketingu a nabízejí tradiční produkty v retroobalech, aby přilákali zákazníka. Trend retro marketingu a obalů je něčím, co je v pravidelných intervalech opakováno. Tento článek prezentuje výsledky výzkumu zaměřeného na marketingovou komunikaci produktů v retroobalech. Dotazníkové šetření bylo zaměřeno na zjištění názoru zákazníků. Respondenti byli osobně dotázáni na základě strukturovaného dotazníku. Pro interpretaci výsledků byla využita základní deskriptivní statistika, kontingenční tabulka byla testována Pearsonovým Chi-kvadrátovým testem. Podle výsledků výzkumu, produkty v retro obalech byly zaznamenány nejvíce zákazníky u řetězce Lidl. Proto se tento článek mimo jiné zaměřuje na přehled marketingových aktivit tohoto řetězce. Uvedený příklad je založen na analýze sekundárních dat.

Kontakt na autorov/Address

Ing. Iveta Broučková, Ph.D., University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, Faculty of Economics, Department of Trade and Tourism, Studentská 13, 370 01 České Budějovice,
The Czech Republic, e-mail: [email protected]

Ing. Eva Jaderná, Ph.D., University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, Faculty of Economics, Department of Trade and Tourism, Studentská 13, 370 01 České Budějovice,
The Czech Republic, e-mail: [email protected]

Ing. et Bc. Alena Srbová, Ph.D., University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, Faculty of Economics, Department of Trade and Tourism, Studentská 13, 370 01 České Budějovice, The Czech Republic, e-mail: [email protected]

Recenzované/Reviewed

21. február 2019 / 10. marec 2019




Perception of product placement usage by Slovak consumers

Perception of product placement usage by Slovak consumers

In recent years, increasing number of companies have used a product placement as a specific form of advertisement for promotion of their products. Many of them very quickly experienced different positive effects accompanied with this specific tool. One of these effects is reflected by brand image improvement of promoted products. The main aim of this paper is to identify changes in consumer brand image perception in case of product placement usage. In order to reach this aim, we have examined product placement knowledge and likeness of its usage among consumers or differences between classical advertisement and product placement. As well as main focus of this paper was to investigate opinions of consumers if the product placement usage influence their perception of brand image, we realized a primary research. In this research was applied binomial test and proved that more than 50% of Slovak consumers prevail positive brand image perception connected to product placement usage. Our research results proved correlations between brand image perception and purchase intention. This paper presents the part of results of complex research focused on investigating the effect of product placement on consumer behaviour.

1 Introduction

As the preferences of customers are changing, also the way of advertising has modified, because it was and will be still more and more difficult for marketers to reach and attract consumers via the traditional ways of advertising. This is why the attention of marketing specialists increasingly aims to the new and modern marketing tools, notably to the product placement and its usage. This specific element of marketing communication mix helps them to catch viewers in unexpected situation, by placement of brands or products into movies, TV shows, video games or any other entertainment content, but in unobtrusive way. It is very important, because watchers are not prepared for it and do not have any chance to avoid it, if they want to watch that program. In many cases, they do not even uncover placed brands at all, but the influential effect is there, especially on brand awareness and brand attitude. Therefore, we consider as very interesting to examine influence of product placement on brand image, not only for previous mentioned reasons, but also due to the enormous spread of product placement into various media during last years. At the beginning of the article, we introduce theoretical background of product placement and then we present the outcomes of primary research conducted on research sample of Slovak consumers.

1.1 Theoretical background of product placement

Evolution of product placement perception during decades was differentiating from year to year or from author to author. In a following text we would like to describe development of different concepts about product placement as a time passed and also to provide actual or complex definition of product placement from our point of view. One of the first description of product placement is dated to the year 1987, when Mr. Steortz (p. 22) defined it as „the inclusion of a brand name, product package, signage, or other trademark merchandise within a motion picture, television show, or music video” (Chen and Deterding 2013, p. 42). After few years, very famous definition of product placement from Balasubramanian (1994, In: Balasubramanian et al. 2006) took place, where he characterized it as a paid product message, which aim is to affect and influence the audience of movies or television, by unobtrusive and planned inclusion of branded product into a television program or a movie. Moreover, he understood it as a „hybrid” message that intention is to influence audience without identification of a sponsor. Another, quite instructive approach of Gupta and Gould (1997) tells that it is important to realize that product placement is not always paid in real dollars, therefore can include different forms of refund such as mutually beneficial marketing campaigns, cross-promotion or other (Guennemann and Cho 2014). Second of the two most cited characteristics was provided by Karrh (1998 p. 33) where he perceives product placement as „the paid inclusion of brand products or brand identifiers, through audio and/or visual means, within mass media programming” (Liu, Chou and Liao 2015, p. 300). As we can see, each of these definitions describes slightly different, but important dimension of product placement, while all of them are connecting product placement only to the traditional mass media content. As we mentioned, customers´ preferences and behaviour have changed significantly in last years, what lead to shift of practices and usage of product placement towards a new media. Therefore, marketers and researchers revised and provided new distinctive characteristics of product placement that better fits to changing media context. For example Russell and Belch (2005 p. 74) characterized product placement as „purposeful incorporation of a brand into an entertainment vehicle” or on the other hand authors Edwards and La Ferle (2006 p. 66) revised original definition of Karrh from 1998 and determined product placement as „the intentional inclusion of brands through audio and/or visual means, within entertainment, educational, or informational content” (Chen and Deterding 2013).

1.2 Usage of product placement in world movies

When we would like to briefly summarize the usage of product placement during a history, it is necessary to take a look much more to the past, as we could probably expect. Belovski and Caslavova (2016) conclude that already in 1994 several authors were predicting the death of traditional advertising by the year 2010. Especially, Richards and Curran (2002) indicated the word of mouth and product placement as challenging for marketers (Belovski and Caslavova 2016). Štrach (2014) concludes that product placement and clearly targeted sponsorship may offer opportunities, which have not yet been fully utilized. We cannot say that product placement is something newly formed. It is known that product placement is present here for many decades. One of the most famous example of product placement history is from Steven Spielberg movie – „E.T. – The Extra-terrestrial” (1982), where the young boy used the candies of „Reese´s Pieces” to make friendship with the alien. Interesting is that Steven Spielberg originally wanted to have M&M´s in the movie, but they reputedly turned him down. Probably they still regret their decision, because due to this placement, sales of Reese´s Pieces increased by 65% (Balasubramanian et al. 2006, p. 116; New York Film Academy 2015).
If we go deeper into the history we can find there a lot of examples too. One of the first documented instance of product placement appeared in Girel´s film from year 1896 – „Défilé du 8e Battalion”, where the wheelbarrow significantly displays the brand „Sunlight Soap” on it. In addition, Thomas Edison used more evident placement of products in his films, such as one 50 second scene where the men are smoking in front of the billboard of „Admiral Cigarettes” company. It is also known that Edison early travelling films were perfect models for product placement deals, because some part of production costs of these movies were covered by transportation companies. In exchange for filming they incorporated the trains of companies „Lehigh Valley Railroad” or „The Black Diamond Express” into film and Edison´s crew was travelling for free. Some authors, such as Wasko (1994) even considers origin of product placement usage to 1940´s or Eckert into 1930´s, but majority of them perceive these activities such as some unstructured process until the movie E.T was released (Nunlee, Smith and Katz 2012, p. 12).
After introduction of movie E.T., appearance of product placement in different movies dramatically increased, especially due to its huge impact on sales growth. Because of great success, companies from different industries started to use this phenomenon, such as car industry, beverages, fashion industry, electronic industry etc. For example, producers of beverages such as Pepsi, Coke or Dr. Pepper use to place their brands into movies very often. Very famous is placement of brands Reebok, Pepsi, Pizza Hut and Doritos in a movie „Wayne´s World” from 1992. It was and still is very popular to place branded cars into movies. For example BMW concern placed their Mini Coopers into the movie Italian Job from 2003. In that very same year company Cadillac experienced very busy year, because their car appeared in 11 movies, such as „2 Fast 2 Furious”, „Bad Boys 2”, „Kangaroo Jack”, „Scary Movie 3”, „Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines”, „Matrix Reloaded”. Also, it is worth to mention very famous and blatant placement of future car Audi, used in a movie iRobot from 2004 (Guennemann and Cho 2014, p. 30).
We cannot forget on series of movies „Fast and Furious”, where many brands are used too. The most famous is beer Corona, sport brand Under Armor, Apple, Panasonic and many branded cars. Brands Lacoste, Nokia, Nike and Apple were used in many episodes of movie „Transformers” in previous decade. Some specific examples of product placement have occurred during history too. For example, title of the movie „The Devil Wears Prada” directly promote and highlight fashion brand that is also used and shown in a movie. Moreover, quite long and important part of movie „I am Sam” was based on and took place in Starbucks coffee shops. Another very interesting example is from movie „Thank You For Smoking”, where the cigarette company provided $40 million to producer, if main character smokes their cigarettes after a love scene.
When we will take a look at the latest movies from previous year 2016, we will find even more products and brands used. Let´s take a movie „The Intern” where were placed many different products of brand Apple, Audi, application Uber, electronics devices such as Dell and Sony. Moreover they placed there Facebook, Skype, Starbucks and Stella Artois. Some of these brands have been used there really nicely, but for example so big focus on car Audi was blatant (brandsandfilms.com 2016).
Probably there is no doubt that everyone has ever heard about films of famous British special agent James Bond. Due to these movies became quickly extremely popular around the world, they came to the attention of the biggest companies worldwide. Agent 007, as main character, always represents pure manhood, is strong, clever, handsome and of course has the most-picky style. This simply caused that main character was always surrounded by top brands. It is known that product placement in Bond´s movies is very successful and therefore it deserves a closer and deeper attention from our side.
In addition, number of brands placed in latest Bond´s movies significantly increased, what could be explained very easily. Brands are outrunning to get a few seconds and to be connected to this perfect and premium movie, to improve their awareness and perception among millions of viewers. On the other hand, money provided from these brands represent very important part of budget of whole movie. For instance, latest blockbuster´s „James Bond Spectre” budget was reported to around $300 million, what placed it on second place of the most expensive movie ever made (right behind „Pirates of Caribbean: At World´s End”). During the history of these movies, main character many times switched brands, what even more confirm the rivalry and emulation between top brands (Cassidy 2015).
Probably many people cannot image James Bond without Martini drink, but this was not always the case. He was also connected to beer Heineken, different sodas and vodkas like Belvedere in latest one. It is also similar with special car that he always receives. At beginning he was using BMW, later he switched to Aston Martin, moreover recently appears also Jaguar & Land Rover and Fiat 500 in „Spectre”. In addition, what is one of the most important thing that special agent must have? Of course, perfect tuxedo or suit and here was change too, from previous Brioni to actual Tom Ford. We can clearly see huge pressure and aim of brands to influence watchers through these movies, by placement of their products into the plot of film. There are also many more brands used in James Bond movies, such as: Sony as smartphone or notebook, Omega as special watches, Avon, Coke, Walther as a pistol he uses, Vuarnet sunglasses or N. Peal´s cashmere turtleneck and many more.
Interesting is a fact that budget of $100 million of movie „Tomorrow Never Dies” from 1997, was whole covered from contracts with brands of 8 major partners. Another quite peculiar thing is a contract with Heineken that ties James Bond to drink their beer at least in one scene during a movie. Except this, Heineken is a very strong and important partner of these movies for example due to $45 million payment for placing their beer into movie „Skyfall” and also because of cross-promotional activities (Sauer 2015).
From all above mention, is obvious that trend of placing brands and products into movies, especially Bond´s movies, will increase and cover still higher and higher proportion of production costs. This is „win-win” situation for both sides, because movie producers will not be able to make such expensive blockbusters with all those special effect and top actors without any financial contribution of these brands. On the other hand, brands placed in these movies increase on their popularity and awareness and are connected to premium and extremely popular content. Some authors also stress „win-win-win” character of product placement. In this case production companies win because they get products for free or significantly cover their production costs. Company (client) wins because of promotion of their products to very huge audience and of coursed increased brand awareness. Moreover, specialized product placement agencies win, because they get paid for their professional advices and service (Product placement a cost-effective marketing 2001; La Ferle and Edwards 2006).
To sum it up, we have to say that product placement in movie industry has a very rich history with many different examples while for our purpose we mention only a few of them. Of course, that some of them were more and some less successful, but one thing is clear, that product placement is still increasing on its popularity and usage.

2 Aims, materials and methodology

The main aim of this article is to identify changes in consumer brand image perception in case of product placement usage. In order to be able to fulfil this aim, it was necessary to investigate several partial aims such as (1) to explore awareness about product placement among Slovak consumers, (2) to examine consumer likeness of product placement usage in TV shows, (3) to investigate differences between product placement and classical advertisement and (4) to study opinions about ethical and regulative aspects of product placement usage.
As well as main focus of this paper was to investigate opinions of consumers if the product placement usage influence their perception of brand image, we have realized a primary research. In order to accomplish the aim of this article we set main hypothesis H0:
H0: We assume that product placement usage influence consumer perception of brand image among more than 50% of Slovak consumers.
For online questionnaire survey, we decided to use questioning as a method for primary data collection. As a tool for collecting this data was used structural questionnaire. For a contacting method, we chose electronic way, especially via e-mail and social network, mainly due to its low organizational difficulty and low costs character. Our questionnaire contains one open question and few closed questions, while from the formulation point of view we used level of agreement statements, semantic differential statements and basic optional questions. In order to ensure suitable scale, we decided to use 7-point Likert scale, because it is soft enough to express opinion of respondent.
When characterizing structure of our sample, first of all we would like to state, that together we were able to collect 173 complete answers. This amount of respondents could be divided into several groups according different identification criteria. We decided to distribute them based on following ones: gender, age, education level, current level of economic activity and level of monthly net personal income. Within very first criterion, gender, our sample consists of 51,4% (i.e. 89) of female and 48,6% (i.e. 84) of male. In order to verify representativeness of this sample, we decided to use Chi-quadrat statistical test, were the results shown us that our sample is representative according gender, because p-value=0,659 is higher than level of significance α=0,05.
Criterion of actual age of our respondents, structured them into many different categories. To make it more transparent, we grouped them into following ones. Youngest respondents, under 18 years old represent 5,8% (i.e. 10), while the biggest group 48,6% (i.e. 84) consist of respondents aged between 18-25 years. Third age category, 26-35 years old, makes 31,2% (i.e. 54) from total amount. Equally were represented groups 36-45 and 46-55 with 6,4% (i.e. 11) and lastly, oldest respondents with more than 56 years stand for 1,7% (i.e. 3).
By the criterion of educational level of respondents, we identified 62,4% (i.e. 108) of them with university degree, 28,9% (i.e. 50) of respondents with high school education finished with state exam. Moreover, 5,2% (i.e. 9) of our respondents have high school education and 3,5% (i.e. 6) of them have primary school education level. Another criterion in identification part was actual economic activity of particular respondent. Based on this criterion, we can divide our sample into following groups. Students represent 32,9% (i.e. 57) from total amount, employed respondents are represented by 47,4% (i.e. 82), while group of entrepreneurs (self-employed included) form 13,3% (i.e. 23) from overall amount. Unemployed persons took part of 2,9% (i.e. 5) and 3,5% (i.e. 6) of them were on maternity leave. There was no representative of the retirement group.
In case of monthly net personal income, there were 28,3% of respondents (i.e. 49) with the net income less than 400 euros per month, 17,3% of respondents (i.e. 30) with the net income from 401 to 600 euros per month, 14,5% of respondents (i.e. 25) with the net income from 601 to 800 euros, 16,8% of respondents (i.e. 29) with the net income from 801 to 1000 euros per month, 6,4% of respondents (i.e. 11) with the net income from 1001 to 1300 euros and lastly 16,8% (i.e. 29) with the net income more than 1301 euros per month.
For verification of hypothesis H0 we used binomial test. In order to examine some relationships we realized correlation analysis, especially Spearman correlation coefficient.

3 Results

Firstly, we examined the respondent´s awareness about product placement. If they have ever heard anything about product placement, their task was to write down what do they know about it. Results shown that 51,4% (i.e. 89) of respondents marked that they are familiar with product placement, while 48,6% (i.e. 84) of them have never heard about it before. From those 89 respondents, 66,3% (i.e. 59) answers of respondents were correct. Interesting was fact, that many respondents used to mistakenly explain it as „merchandising of products into shelves (eye-zone of shelf, rotation of products) with regard to consumers preferences, but to reach highest sales.” Secondly, we examined the consumer likeness of product placement usage in TV programs. Answers of our respondents are very balanced for both sides, because 35% (i.e. 61) of respondents assigned that they do not like that products and brands are placed into TV programs (option 1, 2 and 3). On the other hand, 39% (i.e. 67) of them stated that they do not mind, that product placement is used (option 5, 6 and 7). Moreover, 26% (i.e. 45) of respondents were not sure about they answer and marked middle value (option 4). From these results, we can hardly conclude if respondents like or dislike usage of product placement, due to their split answers.
Answers provided for second statements were more straightforward than in previous question. Majority of respondents 65,9% (i.e. 114) stated that they would watch TV programs even though they would know in advance that product placement is used. On contrary, only 17,3% (i.e. 30) of them would not watch TV programs under this condition and 16,8% (i.e. 29) of respondents were not sure about their answers. Based on these results, we can say that consumers do not really mind inclusion of brands and products and do not perceive product placement as some kind of distraction.
Our statement from previous paragraph is even more confirmed by answers of respondents on next question. When expressing their opinion, if they perceive product placement as less disruptive than classical commercial advertisement they answered as following. Majority of them 74% (i.e. 128) agreed that product placement is less disruptive, while up to 30,6% (i.e. 53) of them expressed strong agreement with this statement. On the other hand, only 12,1% (i.e. 21) of respondents did not agree with this statement, therefore they perceive product placement as more disruptive than classical commercial advertisement.
Another question also proved our assumption, because 53,8% (i.e. 93) of all respondents answered that they would prefer product placement before classical advertisement. Only small amount of our respondents, 22% (i.e. 38) would rather prefer classical commercial advertisement.
To sum it up, we can say that among majority of respondents prevailed positive attitude toward product placement and its usage. This finding is quite interesting, because some authors (Nunlee, Smith and Katz 2012), as we mentioned before, believe that product placement is something „bad” and assume that consumer´s opinion is the same. However, as we can see results of our research are showing the very opposite.
Taking look at the ethical side, respondents were expressing their opinion if they think that product placement is unethical or not. Surprisingly, in spite of some authors (Nebenzahl and Jaffe 1998; Hudson, Hudson and Peloza 2007), called product placement as „subliminal advertisement” or „dark art” answers of our respondents were more positive than negative. From total amount, nearly half – 49,7% (i.e. 86) did not agree that product placement is unethical. Unethical perception of product placement dominated among 27,2% (i.e. 47) of respondents. Rest of them 23,1% (i.e. 40) was not sure and chose middle value.
Aim of last statement, from this section was to reveal consumer´s opinion on product placement regulation. From the results, we can say that two thirds – 67,1% (i.e. 116) of them agreed that product placement should be regulated. On contrary, only 16,8% (i.e. 29) did not agree with this statement.
When summarizing results, we can see that answers of respondents brought us interesting findings about product placement perception. We can say that majority of consumers do not perceive it negatively, even they would prefer it before classical ads. Of course, as with everything, consumers believe that usage of product placement should be regulated, because majority of them 79,8% (i.e. 138) assume that product placement subconsciously influence consumer behavior.
Very last part of our online questionnaire survey was devoted to consumer brand image perception of products and brands included in TV programs. They had to express their opinion through simple semantic differential statement „I think that inclusion of products into TV programs influence their image”. Their answers disclosed that more than half – 60,1% (i.e. 104) of them think that inclusion of brands into TV programs improve their image. In other words, they expressed that brand inclusion in form of product placement has a positive impact on brand image. Opposite opinion about effect of product placement on brand image prevailed among 15,6% (i.e. 27) of respondents. In this case relatively low amount of them 24,3% (i.e. 40) was not sure. In addition, we decided to use these answers to made statistical tests, in order to reveal potential relationships between brand image perception and other factors.
One of our tasks was also to verify our research hypothesis H0, where we assumed that product placement usage influence consumer perception of brand image among more than 50% of Slovak consumers. In order to verify this hypothesis, we used binomial test. Through this test, we found that in our sample, among 60,1% of respondents prevailed positive brand image, therefore we accept this hypothesis H0, because p-value=0. To sum it up, we can say that among more than 60% of Slovak consumers prevail positive brand image perception connected to product placement usage. Output is shown in table 1.

a. Based on Z Approximation.
Table 1: Hypothesis H0 verification
Source: authors by SPSS output

We found interesting to take a look on relationship between brand image and purchase intention. As previously, using Spearman correlation coefficient we tested these relationships with significance level α=0,05. In first case (brand image and purchase intention) statistically significance dependence between those two variables was proven, because p-value=0,003, what is lower than significance level. According to the value of Spearman correlation coefficient 0,222 there is direct low dependence between them. It means that among consumers with more positive brand image tend to be higher purchase intention.

4 Discussion

In this paper we examined the influence of product placement on brand image perceived by consumers. We recommend companies to use product placement as brand improver, because our research showed that more than 60% of consumers feel more positive attitude towards brands and products included in TV shows. Results of our study, prove ideas of different authors, such as (Yang et al. 2004; Dudovskiy 2012) which claim positive perception of product placement among consumers. As we can see, product placement does not influence only brands awareness, but also improve brand image. It is obvious that it is not enough to just put brands into the TV shows and everything is done. Building a brand image is a long-term process which consists of many activities and could be influenced by many factors. Presence of brands through product placement in TV shows is one of them and has positive impact on brand perception. We recommend companies to very thoroughly revise their placements, to not harm their reputation and image by connection with some negative scenes or characters.
As we know, positive attitude toward things, especially products and brands use to end with their purchase, because we like or love them. After testing this relationship in our thesis, we proved that there is positive middle strong dependency between brand image perception and purchase intention. Therefore, if consumers perceive brand more positively, they have higher tendency to purchase them. This is important to realize, because as we mentioned before, usage of product placement is in a majority of consumers perceived positively. Thus, if it is implemented properly, companies can achieve not only better brand image, but also higher purchase intention as it goes hand in hand. In general, we know that purchase decision process consists from few steps, therefore there might be different variables that could influence and change it at all.
From this reason, companies should properly chose products and TV programs in which they place their products, because it takes important role. All this decisions influence perception of brand image by final consumer, which is interconnected to their purchase intention too. Thus, we suggest companies to strongly focus their attention on building positive and good image of their brands and products among customers, using all available activities, as well as by product placement. We know that there are many other ways within marketing, such as PR communication, usage of social media, sponsorship of different activities and so on. Complex usage of all possible elements should lead to improved brand image, what is solely important for companies, but even more connected with product placement effects.

5 Conclusion

In this paper we examined consumer perception of brand image in case of product placement usage. Research results should help businesses to find out if the product placement usage in films or TV shows has the effect on improving their brand image. We realized quantitative research on the sample of Slovak consumers and also examined the awareness about product placement among consumers, consumer likeness of product placement, differences between product placement and classical advertisement and opinions about ethical and regulative aspects of product placement usage. Moreover, through qualitative research have been revealed and proved relationships between brand image and purchase intention.
We would like to summarize also our research limitations. We have to mention, that answers of respondents were collected conveniently and therefore we were able to fulfil only gender condition of representativeness of our sample. For future research, it would be appropriate, to make deeper analysis of product placement, but on perfectly representative sample, in order to be able to generalize results for whole country. It might be interesting to take closer look on problematic of multitasking and duality within product placement examination. Moreover, it would be also interesting to broaden the scope of examination and include also other media in order to compare them. Due to topic of product placement is very wide, we can see that there are many possibilities of further study.

Literatúra/List of References

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[4] Chen, H. and Deterding, A., 2013. College-aged young consumers’ interpretations of product placement in social games. In: Young Consumers. 2013, 14(1), pp. 41-51. ISSN 1747-3616. [online]. [cit. 2019-01-12]. Available at:
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[10] New York Film Academy. 2015. Product Placement in Movies: 5 Blatantly Obvious Examples. 2015. [online]. [cit. 2016-11-16]. Available at: <https://www.nyfa.edu/student-resources/product-placement-movies-5-blatantly-obvious-examples/>
[11] Nunlee, M., Smith, D. and Katz, M. A., 2012. Negative Product Placement: An Evolving Theory of Product Disparagement and Unfair Competition. In: Journal of Marketing Development and Competitiveness. 2012, 6(2). ISSN 2155-2843. [online]. [cit. 2016-11-16]. Available at: <http://www.na-businesspress.com/JMDC/NunleeM_Web6_2_.pdf>
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Kľúčové slová/Key Words

product placement, brand image, customer perception, the use of product placement
umiestňovanie produktov, imidž značky, spotrebiteľské vnímanie, využívanie umiestňovania produktov

JEL klasifikácia/JEL classification

M37

Résumé

Vnímanie umiestňovania produktov slovenskými spotrebiteľmi

V posledných rokoch narastá počet podnikov, ktoré využívajú umiestňovanie produktov, známe aj pod pojmom product placement, ako špecifickú formu reklamy na propagáciu svojich produktov. Mnohé z nich v krátkom čase zaznamenali rôzne pozitívne účinky spojené s využitím tohto špecifického nástroja. Jeden z týchto efektov sa prejavuje v zlepšení imidžu značky propagovaných produktov. Hlavným cieľom tohto článku je identifikovať zmeny vo vnímaní značiek spotrebiteľmi v súvislosti s ich umiestnením. Na dosiahnutie tohto cieľa sme skúmali poznatky o umiestňovaní produktov a rozdiely vo využívaní klasickej reklamy a umiestnenia produktov. Rovnako sme chceli prostredníctvom primárneho výskumu preskúmať názory spotrebiteľov na to, ako umiestňovanie produktu ovplyvňuje ich vnímanie imidžu značky. V tomto výskume bol použitý binomický test, prostredníctvom ktorého sme dokázali, že u viac ako 50% slovenských spotrebiteľov prevažuje pozitívne vnímanie imidžu značky v súvislosti s umiestňovaním produktu. V rámci nášho výskumu sme identifikovali koreláciu medzi vnímaním imidžu značky a nákupným zámerom. Tento článok prezentuje časť výsledkov komplexného výskumu zameraného na skúmanie vplyvu umiestňovania produktov na správanie spotrebiteľov.

Kontakt na autorov/Address

Ing. Michal Budinský, Matej Bel University in Banská Bystrica, Faculty of Economics, Tajovského 10, 974 01 Banská Bystrica, Slovakia, e-mail: [email protected]

doc. Ing. Janka Táborecká-Petrovičová, PhD., Matej Bel University in Banská Bystrica, Faculty of Economics, Tajovského 10, 974 01 Banská Bystrica, Slovakia, e-mail: [email protected]

Recenzované/Reviewed

21. februára 2019 / 26. februára 2019




Nákupné štýly mladej generácie

Nákupné štýly mladej generácie

Nákupné správanie spotrebiteľov je zložitý proces, v pozadí ktorého stojí viacero zdanlivo nesúvisiacich premenných. Pochopenie tohto procesu je dôležité pre marketing všetkých subjektov stojacich na strane ponuky, pretože ich stimuly môžu v danej situácii rozhodnúť, či si spotrebiteľ vyberie práve ich produkt. Medzi priekopníkov skúmania procesu nákupného rozhodovania patria Sproles a Kendall so svojím originálnym CSI Consumer Styles Inventory. CSI je nástroj slúžiaci na identifikovanie nákupných štýlov a predstavuje ho súbor tvrdení o spôsoboch nakupovania, ktoré boli testované v mnohých krajinách. Cieľom tohto príspevku je s použitím modifikovaného CSI odhaliť nákupné štýly mladých ľudí, ktoré používajú pri nákupe oblečenia.

Nákupné štýly

Pri každom nákupe prechádzajú spotrebitelia procesom rozhodovania, ktorý môže byť vedomý aj nevedomý. Tento proces môže mať jeden alebo aj viacero cieľov, ktorými môžu byť výber tej najvýhodnejšej alternatívy, minimalizácia negatívnych emócií, zníženie námahy pri výbere alebo maximalizácia schopnosti zdôvodniť si konečné rozhodnutie (Pilai a Srivastava 2015, s. 386). Narang a Mishra (2014, s. 17) zdôrazňujú, že v rámci rozhodovacieho procesu majú najväčší vplyv atribúty založené na emóciách. Spotrebitelia majú viacero dôvodov, prečo idú nakupovať, pričom môže ísť o spoločenské vzťahy s ostatnými, zábavu alebo senzorickú stimuláciu (Kotzé et al. 2012, s. 2).
Už niekoľko desaťročí sa akademici aj marketingoví špecialisti snažia pochopiť proces spotrebiteľského rozhodovania v kontexte rôznych kultúr. Medzi prvými, ktorí sa začali systematicky venovať skúmaniu nákupných štýlov, boli George Sproles a Elizabeth Kendall, ktorí v 80-tych rokoch 20. storočia vytvorili nástroj slúžiaci na identifikáciu nákupných štýlov, ktorý je široko používaný a testovaný po celom svete. Tento nástroj má názov CSI Cosnumer Styles Inventory a pôvodne pozostával z 39 tvrdení. Testovaním dotazníka na 482 amerických študentoch identifikovali osem rôznych nákupných štýlov s nasledujúcou charakteristikou (Bearden a Netemeyer 1999, s. 258):
• Zameraní na kvalitu. Tento štýl vyjadruje, do akej miery spotrebiteľ starostlivo a systematicky hľadá najvyššiu kvalitu produktov.
• Zameraní na značku. Vyjadruje, do akej miery spotrebiteľ inklinuje k nákupu drahších a uznávaných značiek.
• Zameraní na módu a módne novinky. Spotrebitelia, ktorí sa identifikujú s týmto štýlom, majú radi nové a inovatívne produkty a s pôžitkom ich vyhľadávajú.
• Zameraní na nakupovanie. Tento nákupný štýl sa zvykne v literatúre označovať aj ako hedonistický a vyjadruje, do akej miery vidí v nakupovaní príjemnú aktivitu a nakupuje len tak pre radosť.
• Zameraní na cenu. Spotrebitelia, pre ktorých je typický tento nákupný štýl, vyhľadávajú lacnejšie produkty a výpredaje.
• Impulzívni. Impulzívny nákupný štýl vyjadruje tendenciu spotrebiteľov rozhodnúť sa pre nákup v okamihu bez toho, aby si zvážili dôsledky, čo ich to bude stáť, no nielen finančne.
• Zmätení veľkou ponukou. Tento štýl odráža, do akej miery spotrebitelia vnímajú príliš veľkú ponuku tovarov a služieb, z ktorej si nevedia vybrať a cítia sa zahltení informáciami.
• Verní. Tento štýl zahŕňa tých, ktorí opakovane navštevujú tie isté nákupné centrá alebo predajne a nakupujú stále tie isté značky.

CSI ako nástroj zisťovania nákupných štýlov bol testovaný v rôznych kultúrach po celom svete. Niektoré štúdie nepotvrdili všetkých osem nákupných štýlov (Mandhlazi, Dhurup a Mafini 2013, s.161; Ghodeswar, s. 43). Ďalšie zase odhalili celkom nové nákupné štýly, napríklad vyhýbanie sa nakupovaniu (Tanksale, Neelam a Venkatachalm 2014, s. 216), vyhľadávajúci vyjednávanie, orientovaní na referenčné skupiny, hľadajúci pohodlie, spoločensky žiaduco nakupujúci a vyhľadávajúci informácie (Pilai a Srivastava 2015, s. 402-403) alebo ekologické (Sarabia-Sanchez, De Juan Vigarai a Hota 2012).
Niektorí autori skúmali vzťah medzi nákupným štýlom a motiváciou alebo hodnotami spotrebiteľov. Indonézska štúdia (Helmi 2016, s. 350) potvrdila, že každý nákupný štýl je unikátny v tom, že je vyjadrením rôznych hodnôt, ktoré jedinec uznáva. Napríklad štýl zameraný na značku odzrkadľuje hodnoty ako sú pocit spolupatričnosti, zábava, bezpečie alebo sebarealizácie. Americká a pakistanská štúdia (Park, Yu a Zhou 2010; Batool et al. 2015, s. 24) ukázali, že kognitívne typy spotrebiteľov inklinujú k nákupným štýlom zameraní na kvalitu, cenu a zmätení veľkou ponukou a k ostatným pôvodným piatim štýlom zase inklinujú senzorické typy spotrebiteľov.
Znalosť toho, ktoré nákupné štýly sú dominantné, pomáha výrobcom aj obchodníkom prispôsobiť svoj marketing tak, aby spotrebiteľov pritiahli do predajní a dali im impulz k nákupu. Pred niekoľkými rokmi sa niektoré reťazce pokúsili zmeniť vnímanie predajní tak, aby to nebolo len miesto, kde sa ponúka tovar, ale miesto, kde má zmysel zastaviť sa (Štrach 2016, s. 58). Unikátne atrakcie kultúrneho, športového alebo umeleckého charakteru zatraktívňujú alternatívu návštevy a následného nákupu (Lieskovská a Megyesiová 2017, s. 27). Ako príklad môžu slúžiť kníhkupectvá, ktoré sa u nás zmenili na kaviarne alebo miesto, kde sa môžu deti zabaviť.

Metodika prieskumu

Na zistenie toho, ktorý z nákupných štýlov je typický pre mladých ľudí, bol realizovaný kvantitatívny prieskum. Respondentmi boli študenti Obchodnej fakulty na Ekonomickej univerzite v Bratislave. Získali sme 144 riadne vyplnených dotazníkov od mladých ľudí vo veku od 21 do 24 rokov, z ktorých ženy tvorili 64%.
Pri tvorbe dotazníka boli použité niektoré tvrdenia z pôvodného CSI, ktoré boli doplnené tvrdeniami z iných štúdií (Bearden a Netemeyer 1999, s. 207-260; Pilai a Srivastava 2015, s. 398) zameraných na nákupné štýly. Dotazník nakoniec obsahoval 44 tvrdení, ku ktorým mali respondenti vybrať zo 7-stupňovej škály, do akej miery ich dané tvrdenie vystihuje. Keďže stupeň 1 znamenal absolútne ma to vystihuje a 7 absolútne ma to nevystihuje, čím nižšie hodnoty respondent priradil danému nákupnému štýlu, tým bol tento štýl pre neho viac typický. Keďže každý nákupný štýl bol skúmaný viacerými tvrdeniami, jednotlivé tvrdenia boli v dotazníku náhodne zoradené, aby sa predišlo tomu, že tvrdenia zamerané na podobný štýl by išli v dotazníku hneď za sebou. Zhromažďovanie údajov prebiehalo od 28. novembra do 7. decembra 2018 formou CAWI s využitím služieb Google. Údaje boli analyzované faktorovou analýzou, Cronbachovou alfa, t-testom a Kruskal-Wallisovým testom.
Cieľom analýzy v prvom kroku bolo identifikovať tvrdenia, ktoré sú vhodné na zisťovanie nákupných štýlov. Následne pracovať len s týmito tvrdeniami a zistiť, ktoré nákupné štýly sú dominantné a porovnať ich podľa pohlavia.

Konštrukcia a testovanie nástroja CSI

V prvom kroku bolo 44 tvrdení použitých ako vstup pre faktorovú analýzu (išlo o principal component s rotáciou varimax). Faktorová analýza vygenerovala 11 faktorov, ktoré vysvetľovali 68,3% rozptylu. Tvrdenia s nízkymi faktorovými záťažami pre každý z jedenástich faktorov (čiže slabo súviseli s faktormi) boli z ďalšej analýzy vyňaté. Následne sa znovu použila faktorová analýza pre ostávajúcich 28 tvrdení, ktorá vygenerovala 7 faktorov vysvetľujúcich 80,4% rozptylu (Tab. 1).

Tabuľka 1: Výsledky faktorovej analýzy
Zdroj: vlastné spracovanie

Každý faktor predstavuje jeden nákupný štýl tvorený viacerými tvrdeniami. Tieto tvrdenia by teda mali vyjadrovať to isté, takže by mali spolu korelovať. Mali by byť konzistentné v tom, ktorý koncept merajú (Mokhlis 2013, s. 5) a to sa dá zistiť vypočítaním Cronbachovej alfy. Odporúčaná hodnota by nemala klesnúť pod 0,7 (Tavakol a Dennick 2011, s. 54), resp. 0,65 (University of Virginia), aby bolo možné akceptovať konzistenciu meraného konceptu. Analýza reliability konštrukcií škál odhalila jednu nekonzistentnú škálu týkajúcu sa nákupného štýlu zameraní na kvalitu Cronbachova alfa mala hodnotu 0,635, no odstránením jedného tvrdenia sa jej hodnota zvýšila na 0,779 (Tab. 2).

Tabuľka 2: Úprava konzistencie škály na akceptovateľnú úroveň
Zdroj: vlastné spracovanie

Aj keď konštrukcia nákupného štýlu zameraní na cenu mala akceptovateľnú hodnotu Cronbachovej alfy, odstránením jednej položky (tvrdenia) sa jej hodnota zvýšila z 0,709 na 0,807 (Tab. 3).

Tabuľka 3: Zvýšenie konzistencie škály
Zdroj: vlastné spracovanie

Škály na skúmanie zvyšných nákupných štýlov neboli upravované, lebo vykazovali akceptovateľnú konzistenciu (Tab. 4).

Tabuľka 4: Konštrukcia škál na meranie nákupných štýlov
Zdroj: vlastné spracovanie

Nákupné štýly mladých ľudí

Na základe výsledkov faktorovej analýzy a po overení reliability konštrukcie nákupných štýlov, vzniklo sedem nákupných štýlov, ktoré boli vytvorené dvadsiatimi šiestimi tvrdeniami. Pre zistenie toho, ktorý nákupný štýl je typický pre mladých ľudí, sa vypočítali priemery za každý nákupný štýl (Graf 1).

Graf 1: Priemerné hodnoty nákupných štýlov
Zdroj: vlastné spracovanie

Z konštrukcie škály vyplýva, že čím je nižšia hodnota, tým sa respondenti s nákupným štýlom viac stotožňujú. Výsledky naznačujú, že dominantným nákupným štýlom mladých ľudí by mal byť zameraní na kvalitu a najmenej využívaným zameraní na novinky.
Aby sa mohlo stanoviť, ktoré nákupné štýly sa od seba významne líšia, použil sa t-test na skúmanie štatisticky významných rozdielov medzi výslednými priemernými hodnotami nákupných štýlov. Výsledky párového porovnávania ukázali, že nie sú významné rozdiely medzi priemernými hodnotami nákupných štýlov zameraní na kvalitu, impulzívni a zameraní na cenu, a aj medzi nákupnými štýlmi vyhýbajúci sa nakupovaniu, hedonistickí a zameraní na značku. Jedine nákupný štýl zameraní na novinky sa významne líšil od všetkých ostatných (Tab. 5).

Tabuľka 5: Výsledné poradie nákupných štýlov
Zdroj: vlastné spracovanie

Na základe výsledkov t- testu možno konštatovať, že pre mladých ľudí sú typické tri nákupné štýly, a to zameraní na kvalitu, impulzívni a zameraní na cenu. Tieto tri štýly dosiahli najnižšie priemerné hodnoty, štatisticky významne sa líšia od ostatných štyroch štýlov, ale navzájom sa významne od seba nelíšia.

Ďalej sme sa zamerali na porovnanie nákupných štýlov medzi mužmi a ženami (Graf 2).

Graf 2: Nákupné štýly podľa pohlavia
Zdroj: vlastné spracovanie

Výsledky Kruskal-Wallisovho testu ukázali, že významné rozdiely medzi mužmi a ženami nie sú len pri dvoch nákupných štýloch, a to vyhýbajúci sa nakupovaniu a zameraní na novinky. V ostatných štýloch sa líšia, pričom pre mužov je jednoznačne dominantný nákupný štýl zameraní na kvalitu a vôbec nie je pre nich typické hedonistické nakupovanie. Pre ženy sú charakteristické tri nákupné štýly, a to zamerané na cenu, impulzívne a zamerané na kvalitu. Najmenej sa ženy stotožňujú s dvomi nákupnými štýlmi: zamerané na novinky a na značku (Tab. 6).

Tabuľka 6: Poradie nákupných štýlov podľa pohlavia
Zdroj: vlastné spracovanie

Možno konštatovať, že muži si jednoznačne dajú záležať na kvalite a radšej si oblečenie nekúpia, ak nie sú presvedčení o jeho kvalite. Je im absolútne cudzie chodiť len tak nakupovať pre zábavu a užívať si nakupovanie. Ženy svoje nákupy zvažujú, ale zaujíma ich aj kvalita. Pravdepodobne sú ochotné počkať si na zľavy, aby si kúpili kvalitnejšie kúsky. No radosť si vedia urobiť aj impulzívnymi nákupmi, ktoré sú úzko späté s emotívnymi reakciami na podnety v predajniach.
Prekvapivým zistením z prieskumu môže byť, že mladí ľudia nežijú až tak intenzívne módnymi novinkami a nie sú v zajatí diktátu módy.

Poznámky/Notes

Tento príspevok bol spracovaný ako jeden z výstupov riešenia projektu VEGA č. 1/0657/19 Úloha influencerov v procese nákupného rozhodovania spotrebiteľa.

Literatúra/List of References

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Kľúčové slová/Key Words

nákupné rozhodovanie, nákupný štýl, mladá generácia, škála, faktorová analýza, konzistencia
shopping decision making, shopping style, young generation, scale, factor analysis, consistency

JEL klasifikácia/JEL classification

M31, D90

Résumé

Shopping styles of young generation

Aim of this study was to verify the modified CSI instrument and to identify dominant shopping style of young people. Construct validity and reliability was assessed by using factor analysis with varimax rotation and Cronbach´s alpha coefficients. Analysis results indicate that the tested instrument is not fully applicable to young Slovak people, as only 26 out of 44 items loaded onto seven factors, exhibited acceptable validity and reliability. Based on the average scores and results of the t-test we can conclude that there are three dominant shopping styles typical for young people: Quality conscious, Impulse driven and Price conscious. Therefore, high quality products, incentives in the stores and low price are important driving shopping forces for young people. Surprisingly, it was found that novelty-fashion is not a priority for young-adult consumers.
Men have one dominant shopping style Quality conscious and they are not at all hedonistic shoppers. Three shopping styles are typical for women: Price conscious, Impulse driven and Quality conscious.

Kontakt na autorov/Address

Ing. Dana Vokounová, PhD., Ekonomická univerzita v Bratislave, Obchodná fakulta, Katedra marketingu, Dolnozemská cesta 1, 852 35 Bratislava 5, e-mail: [email protected]

Recenzované/Reviewed

8. jún 2018 / 16. jún 2018