Perception of offensive advertising: Cross-cultural peculiarities

Perception of offensive advertising: Cross-cultural peculiarities

Nowadays advertising clutter in almost all media is forcing advertisers to use offensive and provocative appeals in ads. However, the various techniques used in such advertising, as well as effects of these ads, have not been adequately studied, especially when adapting advertising on the global market. The perception of offensive advertising varies according to different parameters: gender, age, social class, religion, etc. In particular, an important role in the perception is played by national and cultural traditions and features. In the study there is the comparative analysis of the perception of offensive advertising young people of different nationalities: attitude towards ads, techniques and brands.


The global advertising market is estimated at nearly USD 550 billion in 2015 and continues to grow, despite the financial crisis, due to the emergence of new media and the development of new markets (Global Advertising Growth (2006-2019)).
Advertising noise in the developed markets is very high, for example, in Russia only through the TV people contact with more than 500 ads per week. Of course, this situation may reduce the effectiveness of each individual advertising message, and media planners are learning to deal with it: it is possible to increase quantity of ads and budgets; it is possible to search for new channels of communication, and search for points of growth efficiency in the content of the advertising message.
Some basic approaches can be distinguished when planning advertising campaigns on global markets:
(1)  Advertising messages are standardized (universal) for all markets (countries), it is the only element in the text adaptation (translated). An example is the manufacturers of cosmetics and cars. Obviously, this reduces the costs, but such advertising is not always clearly understood by consumers on a rational level.
(2)  The advertising idea is universal, but in some regional markets a different message is produced, which takes into account some features of the region. The most of it is about the people appearing in the message. As an example, it can be specifying the McDonald’s, which adapts posts by filming people of a certain race. It is obvious that the advertising idea may be universal only when it is perceived equally by all cultures. For example, family values, good humour, joy and smiles, etc.
(3)  Advertising messages are unique, fully adapted to the particular market. In this case, of course, it is a question of increasing the budget for the production of advertising and more attention to the creative component. Sometimes advertisers use in their campaigns some provocation, a challenge to the society. In this case, probably, standardization is impossible, because such effects can be perceived in different ways in different cultures.
In the study, researchers tried to show that there is not only positive, socially acceptable, but also negative, insulting content of advertising messages that is equally perceived in different national cultures and attitudes towards it depend on the socio-demographic characteristics of consumers (gender, age, life stage). If the repulsive, provocative, abusive ads are desired then the same can be standardized for different national cultures. The hypotheses that have been put forward:
(1)  Emotional perception of advertising depends on the socio-demographic characteristics.
(2)  It is possible to standardize the disgusting advertisement for different national cultures.
(3)  If the advertising causes more negative emotions (in the aggregate), the attitude towards the brand is getting worse.

The objective of the study is to reveal the emotional attitude towards different advertising contents in different national cultural, social and demographic groups. The study examined two aspects of offensive advertisements of the three, according Phau and Prendergast (Phau and Prendergast 2001):
(1)  emotional attitude to the style, the manner of supplying offensive advertisements (manner),
(2)  in what communications channels it is permissible to place such advertising (media).

In the study researchers did not investigate the question insulting advertising items (matter): objects, according to the consumer, are offensive for advertising (e.g., female hygiene products). In addition, there are advertising items (e.g., HIV / AIDS prevention) for which the offensive advertising fits more than any other (Darren, Frankerberger and Manchanda 2003).

1 Emotions and offensive advertising

There are different terms for the advertising that causes negative emotions. The term «offensive» is selected based on the analysis of several publications, although there are other terms such as, “disgust” (Dens, Pelsmacker and Janssens 2008), “shock advertising or shockvertising” (Darren, Frankerberger and Manchanda 2003) for such advertising. The most used term is “offensive”. In the questionnaire of the study, researchers used the term “offensive and provocative advertising”.
A lot of attention has been paid to the study of cross cultural aspects of perception the offensive advertising (An and Kim 2008), (Chan, Diehl and Terlutter 2007), (Waller, Deshpande and Erdogan 2013).
One of the hypotheses about the increasing volumes of offensive advertising is the belief that any advertising in the first place should be emotional. The people, in addition to the visual memory have very stable emotional memory, which works on the principle of “pleasant – unpleasant, like – not like it.” It was found that emotional memory is much stronger than other types of memory, affects the decision-making, that is, the buying behavior. It is manifested in the emotional form there are numerous individual differences of potential consumers. Any promotional video is not just information, it is a few emotionally charged minutes, personally experienced by man at the time of viewing.
An emotional advertising does not act according to the formula AIDA (Attention, Interest, Desire, Action). On the one hand, advertisers seek above all for using positive emotions to attract attention, it turns out an overabundance of “positive” advertising. On the other hand, the increasing volumes are not emotional, “unleavened”, advertising, created on the principle of “do no harm”. In these circumstances, the advertiser refers to “negative” emotions.
Increasing volumes of offensive advertising and Internet trading changes the AIDA formula to AISAS (Attention, Interest, Searches for information, Action, after which information is Shared with others) (Dentsu 2004) or AIDAS (AIDA and S – Share) and even AISDA. According to the AIDAS authors of the article assume, that after buying goods and obtaining satisfaction, the buyer is to share information about it with their friends, relatives, colleagues, etc. According to the AISDA communication «Share» comes before the consumption of the goods. Advertising itself cause a desire to share it with their friends, relatives, colleagues, etc. The Internet Society to do this is quite simple. And, probably, offensive ads cause this desire to a greater extent than positive ads, because offensive ads “showier”.
Of course, it is not a fact that the offensive advertising leads to Desire and Action. In the study, researchers ask respondents about their attitudes to the brand before and after seeing the offensive advertising. But, as it was said above, different people may have different perception of offensive advertising. In terms of total (virus) spread offensive advertising: who seen ad can find enough people for who this ad is not very provocative, perhaps, rather funny, and will encourage them to buy. Authors also assume that the positive advertisement is less the nature of the spread of viral and worse working formula AISDA. Thus offensive advertising by total distribution over the Internet and ambiguous effects on the different socio-demographic groups has a greater effect of the plan to purchase than positive ads.
The fact that to “wash away” the bad reputation is very difficult, and people remember the bad longer than the good, is opposed to the total use of offensive advertising.
Researchers have built the study of perception of advertising images in video and print ads in two classifications of emotions. Paul Ekman highlights 7 basic emotions: Happiness, Sadness, Fear, Surprise, Anger, Disgust, Contempt (O’Carroll 2014). Carroll Izard described 12 discrete emotions: Interest, Joy, Surprise, Sadness, Anger, Disgust, Contempt, Self-Hostility, Fear, Shame, Shyness, and Guilt (Izard, Libero, Putnam and Haynes 1993). For the most part researchers focused on the scale of emotions by Carroll Izard.
It is not the fact that the offensive advertising will only cause negative emotions among representatives of different national cultures and socio-demographic groups, so for research purposes, researchers used 3 positive (Joy / Fun / Happiness, Interest, Surprise) and 3 negative emotions (Disgust, Anger, Shame) (Table 1). Similar statements were used for print advertising.
After watching the commercials on YouTube the respondent had to classify each of the statements (Table 1) on the scale from 1 (completely disagree) to 6 (completely agree). This scale does not allow the respondent to take a middle position, to avoid a clear expression of emotions (Malhotra 2010). Perhaps it is better to explore the emotional impact on the reaction on people’s faces (O’Carroll 2014), but the anonymous study has its advantages – the respondent is not trying to hide his emotions.
In addition, the offensive advertising is often a combination of positive and negative emotions (seems to be disgusting but funny). The final criterion whether decent or not decent advertising is to consider opinion of respondent as to whether it is possible to display ad and where.

Table 1: Emotion in the questions about video ads
Source: Authors


2.1 Questionnaire

Primary data collection was carried out with the help of service (questionnaire is posted on As socio-demographic factors were used: gender; age; Life Stage; country of residence; nationality; religion. Next, respondents were asked to evaluate their attitude to a particular brand (Axe, Skittles, Mentos, Samsung, New Yorker, Dove, Sysley, Dolce & Gabbana, McDonald’s). Then they can see the video ads (Axe, Skittles, Mentos, Samsung, New Yorker) and see posters (Dove, Sysley, Dolce & Gabbana, McDonald’s) and to assess its consent on 6 statements expressing positive and negative emotions. After this, respondents were asked about the attitude towards the brand again (after contact with advertising). Next they chose the brand offered from certain product categories with the intention to make a purchase: the choice of represented brand from advertising, its competitor and the option “Other”. Finally, respondents expressed their opinion on what the media could be used for demonstration of such advertising.
Table 2 shows the brand, the short name (content) of advertising and why (direction, subject), in our opinion, this ad is offensive (see ads on


Table 2: Brands, ads and offensiveness
Source: Authors

2.2 Answers and opinions

The survey is currently ongoing, so in this article we present the preliminary results and some conclusions that are already available. After working with outliers and extremes the sample size is 193 respondents, so maximum error of research is 7% with 95% probability. In this case a certain number of respondents’ categories were estimated separately on significant level:
• gender (male; female),
• life stage (16-34 years, not married, no children, live with parents; 16-34 years, not married, no children, live separately from parents),
• region (Western Europe; Eastern Europe),
• religion (Christians; Atheists).

Cronbach’s alpha was used as an estimate of the reliability of a test (scale). The value is equal to 0.81, so internal consistency can be classified as good. Consider the results of the study on changes in attitudes towards the brand after viewing the advertisement. The H0 hypothesis is: it estimates the attitude towards a brand before and after viewing the ad does not differ. T-test for dependent variables (two-tailed) was used to verify the hypothesis (theoretical value of t (Student) with p-level 0.05 is 1.97). The results for each ad are presented in table 3. H0 is accepted for two cases (Axe and New Yorker). In other cases, the difference between means is significant.



Table 3: The change of attitude
Source: Authors

The results for the answer about media for display ads are presented in table 4. The mode was chosen as an estimate in this case. It can be noted that the advertisement with the “Bun – chest” (McDonald’s) should not be shown at all. Atheists are more tolerant from the point of view of public acceptability. Mockery of old age and drug promotion as appeals has differences in chosen media by respondents’ categories.


Table 4: Media for display ads
Source: Authors

T-test for independent variables (two sided) with separate variance was used to verify the following hypothesis: there are no differences in the attitude towards the brand after viewing an ad between respondents‘ categories based on cross-cultural and socio-demographic characteristics (the significant level was fixed at 0.05). The cases where the hypothesis is rejected are highlighted in the table. The significant differences are mostly based on gender and religion characteristics but not recognized for the country.


Table 5: Difference between respondents‘ categories (p-level values)
Source: Authors


Figure 1: The estimates of emotions and % of choosing brands
Source: Authors

Figure 1 presents the average scores of positive and negative emotional scale and answers to the question about choosing a brand from ad when buying the product category (size of bubbles). It is noticeable that the upper right quadrant is empty, there are no brands, advertising which has caused both positive and negative emotions above mean, but the reverse situation is typical for the brand New Yorker. Despite the high negative ratings of the advertisement, the respondents are ready to buy food in McDonald’s, but the positive assessment of the advertising Axe, does not help a large percentage of its purchase.

2.3 Conclusions

After making calculations and comparison of ratings by different categories of respondents, researchers can draw the following conclusions.
(1)  Attitude towards the brand became better or did not changed just in two cases: Axe and New Yorker. In the other cases, the attitude became more negative, especially for brands Sysley and McDonald’s.
(2)  Despite the positive emotions caused by the ad, the attitude towards the brand may deteriorate.
(3)  Respondents tend to avoid extreme rates: there is only a little number of mean values less than 2 and more than 5.
(4)  The biggest negative emotions were caused by the following ads: Mentos (anger), Sysley (shame, disgust) and McDonalds’s (shame, anger). In the first two cases respondents allowed to show such ads (for brand Sysley just some categories of respondents), but the ad of the brand McDonald’s may not be on display anywhere. It talks about the greatest opposition to the use in advertising of children, regardless of socio-demographic and cross-cultural differences.
(5)  The ratings of religious people and the atheists on positive emotions are often the same, but Christians rate negative emotions in a more uncompromising way. There are also differences between residents of Eastern and Western Europe: the first give more negative ratings of negative emotions; the second – higher in positive. The same differences were found between men and women. Significant differences between people of different life stages have not been identified. We can only say that people living separately from their parents permit a large number of media for offensive ads.
(6)  We can say that all hypotheses formulated in the beginning of the article, are confirmed. For example the ad of Mentos with torture was differently rated by men and women like a disgust ad. D&G ad was rated in the same way by respondents from other parts of Europe. Mockery of people can be standardized as advertising appeal on global market.

Literatúra/List of References

[1] An, D. C. and Kim, S. H., 2006. Attitudes Towards Offensive Advertising: a Cross-Cultural Comparison between Korea and the United States. In: Paper for 2006 Annual Conference of the American Academy of Advertising. 2006, Reno, Nevada, March 30 – April 2.
[2]  Chan, K., Li, L. and Terlutter, R., 2007. Consumer’s response to offensive advertising: a cross cultural study. In: International Marketing Review. 2007, 24(5), pp. 606-628. ISSN 0265-1335.
[3]  Darren, D. W., Frankerberger, K. D. and Manchanda, R. V., 2003. Does it pay to shock? Reactions to shocking and nonshocking advertising content among university students. In: Journal of Advertising Research. 2003, 43(3), pp. 268-280. ISSN 0021-8499.
[4]  Dens, N., Pelsmacker, P. D. and Janssens, W., 2008. Exploring consumer reactions to incongruent mild disgust appeals. In: Journal of Marketing Communications. 2008, 14(4), pp. 249-269. ISSN 1352-7266.
[5]  Dentsu, 2004. Cross Communication Glossary. 2004. [online]. [cit. 2016-03-03]. Available on: <>
[6]  Izard, C. E., Libero, D. Z., Putnam, P. and Haynes, O. M., 1993. Stability of emotion experiences and their relations to traits of personality. In: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1993, 64(5), pp. 847-860. ISSN 0022-3514.
[7]  Malhotra, N. K., 2010. Marketing research: an applied orientation. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2010. ISBN 9780136085447.
[8]  O’Carroll, E., 2014. How many basic emotions do you have? It’s written on your face, say scientists. In: The Christian Science Monitor. 2014, April 7. ISSN 0882-7729.
[9]  Phau, I. and Prendergast, G., 2001. Offensive advertising: a view from Singapore. In: Journal of Promotion Management. 2001, 7(3), pp. 165-177. ISSN 1049-6491.
[10]  Questionnaire of the study, 2016. [online]. [cit. 2016-03-03]. Available on: <>
[11]  SlideShare, 2016. Global advertising growth (2006-2019). Magna global ad forecast. 2016. [online]. [cit. 2016-03-03]. Available on: <>
[12]  Waller, D. S., Deshpande, S. and Erdogan, B. Z., 2013. Offensiveness of advertising with violent image appeal: A cross-cultural study. In: Journal of Promotion Management. 2013, 19(4), pp. 400-417. ISSN 1049-6491.

Kľúčové slová/Key Words

advertising, offensive advertising, perception, global market
reklama, útočná reklama, vnímanie, globálny trh

JEL klasifikácia



Vnímanie útočnej reklamy: interkultúrne osobitosti

V súčasnej dobe zmätok v reklamách týkajúci sa takmer všetkých médií núti inzerentov, aby využívali útočné a provokatívne prvky. Avšak rôzne techniky využívané v tomto druhu reklamy, rovnako ako účinky týchto reklám, neboli dostatočne skúmané, a to najmä pri adaptácii reklamy na svetovom trhu. Vnímanie útočnej reklamy sa líši na základe rôznych parametrov: pohlavie, vek, spoločenské triedy, náboženstvo, atď. Dôležitú úlohu vo vnímaní predstavujú hlavne národné a kultúrne tradície a rysy. V štúdii sa nachádza komparatívna analýza vnímania útočných reklám u mladých ľudí rôznych národností: ich postoj voči reklame, technikám a značkám.

Kontakt na autorov/Address

Anastasii Klimin, Ph.D., Peter the Great St.Petersburg Polytechnic University, Institute of Industrial Management, economics and trade, Graduate School of Marketing and Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurship department, 29, Politechnicheskaya str., Saint Petersburg, Russia, 195251, e-mail: [email protected]

Dmitrii Tikhonov, Ph.D., Peter the Great St.Petersburg Polytechnic University, Institute of Industrial Management, economics and trade, Graduate School of Marketing and Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurship department, 29, Politechnicheskaya str., Saint Petersburg, Russia, 195251, e-mail: [email protected]


23. február 2016 / 8. marec 2016

Measuring consumer acculturation – discussion on a prospective approach

Measuring consumer acculturation – discussion on a prospective approach

This paper discusses how globalization brings in cultural change among consumers and why this phenomenon can be studied under the aegis of consumer acculturation. The discussion is initiated with the explanation of what globalization is and what factors entailing it bring in specific changes in consumer culture. This is followed by a brief introduction to culture and how its components form the base for consumer acculturation. Subsequently, two comprehensive approaches to measure consumer acculturation – Acculturation to Global Consumer Culture (AGCC) approach and Acculturation of Consumer Culture (ACC) approach – are introduced. In comparison, contrast and critique of these approaches are presented. The final section of the paper discusses various propositions which could be incorporated to make the measurement of consumer acculturation more comprehensive and robust than what it is in its current form. It is proposed that both AGCC and ACC approaches should be simultaneously used to measure consumer acculturation. Also, the survey based process which both these approaches follow should be further supplemented with observational and in-depth interview mechanisms of data collection. Hence, an amalgamation of both quantitative and qualitative approaches of data collection is expected to be the ideal manner of comprehensively measuring consumer acculturation.


The increasing impact of globalization on consumer attitude and behavior has generated a lot of interest among the researchers world over. It has been ascertained that globalization enables diverse cultural groups to come into contact with one another leading to perceptual, attitudinal, or behavioral changes across almost all cultures around the world (Lee 1993). Quoting many prominent researchers, Cleveland et al. (2009), claim that capitalism, global transport, communications, marketing and advertising, and transnational cosmopolitanism are interacting to dissolve the boundaries across national cultures. According to them, these forces of globalization are leading to the emergence of a homogeneous global consumption culture, wherein consumers from various countries would be more global than local in their consumption orientation.
The above scenario is indicating towards the emergence of consumer acculturation, wherein consumers across the world are getting acculturated to follow a uniform consumer culture. If this is the case, then a pertinent question is how to measure the extent of consumer acculturation. What would be the pertinent factors which should be measured to ascertain the existence of consumer acculturation across various countries in the world? How should the identified factors of consumer acculturation be measured? How should a scale to measure consumer acculturation be designed so that it can be used among culturally different consumers without losing its reliability and validity? All these questions arise when an attempt is made to measure consumer acculturation. Extant literature also agrees that although many attempts have been made to create an all-encompassing construct for measuring consumer acculturation, like a scale developed by Cleveland and Laroche (2007), called Acculturation to Global Consumer Culture (AGCC), there are still multiple short comings in the existing scales which need to be highlighted and addressed.
This paper is an attempt to address the concerns raised above. Since, globalization is the antecedent which has led to consumer acculturation, the paper starts with a detailed discussion on the various aspects of globalization and how they impact the prevalence of consumer acculturation. This is followed by discussion and critical assessment of two prominent extant measurements of consumer acculturation. It highlights the drawbacks present in them and attempts to address these drawbacks. Through this approach, the paper attempts to outlay a discussion on a proposed approach which could enable development of a comprehensive scale for measurement of consumer acculturation.

1 Understanding globalization and consumer acculturation

1.1 Globalization

The phenomenon of Globalization, as per the extant literature, is defined as bringing the people of the world closer to each other. Researchers like Appadurai (1990) see globalization as spread of five types of global flows, namely – mediascapes, which is flow of image and communication; ethnoscapes, considered as flows of tourists, migrants and foreign students; ideoscapes, defined as flows of political ideas and ideologies; technoscapes, which is flow of technology and know-how and finally finanscapes, which comprises of flows of capital and money. In his seminal article on globalization, Levitt (1984) argues that globalization is making consumers’ world over ‘homogenized’, or similar in their needs and requirements. Hence, globalization seems to be changing the cultural fabric and patterns of a society as products, icons, lifestyles and rituals of one culture are being adopted by another (Craig and Douglas 2006).

1.1.1 Cultural Change Being Brought by Globalization

Over the last two decades, globalization has fostered a seismic shift in marketing activities across the world, especially in developing countries (Lysonski et al. 2012). Many researchers (like Craig et al. 2009 and Yaprak 2008) have brought forth the consequent changes which globalization has brought on the extant local consumer culture. According to Venkatesh (1995), in the contemporary world, local cultures are changing quite rapidly because of the rising tide of consumerism brought by external (global) influences. Ger and Belk, (1996) assert that due to globalization, consumers in the developing countries are emulating the lifestyles and consumption patterns of consumers who live in economically developed countries. Hence, globalization seems to be leading to convergent customer needs and interests (Schuh 2007) and to the emergence of a global consumer culture (Nijssen and Douglas 2011).
Witkowski (2005), quoting Barber (1995) and other researchers, states that ideas, values, products (foreign brands) and lifestyles which forces of globalization bring from rich countries, influence the developing country’s culture. Many other researchers like Douglas and Craig (1997) and Craig and Doulas (2006), also support this argument by observing that cultural influences from across borders, in the form of products (foreign brands), services, media, lifestyles and behavior patterns of the consumers in other countries are creating multicultural populations in domestic markets and exposing consumers to alternative behaviors and wants, leading to changes in the traditional patterns of consumer culture and behavior.
Similar arguments have been put forward by Baughn and Buchanan (2001). They state that negotiations surrounding important trade treaties include debates over cultural exceptions and exemptions, reflecting the recognition of the power of trade to shape the local culture. It is feared that the imported cultural goods will displace the local culture (ibid). This observation is supported by Klien (1999), who pointed out that brand names (read foreign brand names), in the form of embedded logos on clothing and other consumer goods, or conveyed through carefully targeted advertising campaigns, manipulate personal tastes. Hence the extant literature overwhelmingly supports the assertion that globalization brings cultural changes among the consumers in the local markets.

1.2 Consumer Acculturation

Since consumer acculturation’s base is culture, we have to first ascertain as to how is culture defined. An interesting observation pertaining to culture has been made by Adler (1983), she observes that in traditional anthropological studies as well as in comparative management research, the term culture has been defined in many ways and no single definition of culture is accepted by management researchers. However, Hofstede‘s (1997) definition of culture has come to be one of the most cited definitions in literature. According to him culture is – “the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another” (Hofstede 1997, p. 5). Though leading researchers differ on the definition of culture, they all agree on the components of culture, which includes religion, family, communication, rites of passage, language, dress, dietary habits, leisure activities, society, attitude, behavior, basic beliefs and basic values (Baligh 1994; Bhugra et al. 1999; Conway Dato-on 2000; Khairullah and Khairullah 1999; Khairullah et al. 1996; Pettys and Balgopal 1998).
To understand the phenomenon of changing consumer culture, its proponents have extensively borrowed from the extant body of literature dealing with acculturation. According to Trimble (2003), the measures of acculturation could be used to measure cultural change because acculturation is synonymous with sociocultural change.
Faber et al. (1987) defined acculturation as the adoption of the dominant culture’s beliefs, attitudes, values, and behavior. Earlier for acculturation to occur, the contact aspect was limited to continuous first hand contact among individuals from different cultures (Redfield et al. 1936). Subsequent researchers (e.g. Andreasen 1990; Craig et al. 2009; Gentry et al. 1995 and Steenkamp 2001) broadened this definition and stated that even indirect exposure to foreign culture via media and commercial communication would transform the indigenous culture. Berry (1980), whose work on acculturation has been widely cited, also concurs with this view. He states that the contact between cultural groups can be either physical or symbolic and it can happen through “trade, invasion, enslavement, educational or missionary activity, or through telecommunications” (Berry 1980, p. 11).
Many researchers have studied acculturation from consumer behavior view-point and have brought forth interesting insights. For e.g., Chattaraman et al. (2010) observes that acculturation might lead to decrease in ethnic consumption and increase in mainstream culture’s consumption. Such consumer behavior oriented approaches to acculturation have led to the development of the constructs like Consumer Acculturation.
Consumer acculturation has been further divided into behavioral and attitudinal dimensions (Gentry et al. 1995; Gupta 2013), with former dimension covering behavioral changes (e.g. changes in (language usage, dietary habits, dress, communication, leisure activities etc.) in the acculturating consumer and the latter dimension covering attitudinal changes (e.g. changes in basic beliefs, values, identity etc.). Many studies (Anderson 2012; Gentry et al. 1995; Gupta 2013; Kim et al. 1999) concur with the view that attitudinal acculturation would occur more slowly than behavioral acculturation as individuals acquire behaviors of the dominant group more rapidly than acquiring the dominant group’s values/attitudes.

2 Measuring consumer acculturation

In this section we discuss two approaches which measure consumer acculturation. The focus is restricted to these two approaches only as they encompass two of the prominent means of measuring acculturation in the contemporary literature. The first approach to measure consumer acculturation was developed by Cleveland and Laroche (2007). Their construct termed as Acculturation to Global Consumer Culture (AGCC) provides a holistic view on how consumer acculturation occurs among consumer. The second approach to measure consumer acculturation has been adopted by Gupta (2012, 2013). This measurement is called Acculturation of Consumer Culture (ACC), which measures the progress that a consumer makes from local consumer culture to global consumer culture due to the impact of globalization (Gupta 2012).

2.1 Comparison of consumer acculturation measurement approaches

Cleveland and Laroche’s (2007) AGCC “considers how individuals acquire the knowledge, skills and behaviors that are characteristic of a nascent and deterritorialized global consumer culture” (Cleveland and Laroche 2007, p. 252). They claim that an exhaustive review of the relevant social sciences literatures made them identify seven distinct drivers which lead to AGCC. These seven distinct drivers were:
• Cosmopolitanism (COS) – willingness to engage with other cultures and having necessary skills to do so.
• Exposure to marketing activities of MNC’s (EXM)
• Exposure to/use of the English language (ELU)
• Social interactions, including travel, migration, and contacts with foreigners (SIN)
• Global/foreign mass media exposure (GMM)
• Openness to and desire to emulate global consumer culture (OPE)
• Self-identification with global consumer culture (IDT)

In contrast to Cleveland and Laroche’s (2007) approach to study “how” consumer acculturation occur, Gupta’s (2012, 2013) ACC approach to study consumer acculturation “deals with progress of consumer from local to global culture” (Gupta 2013, p. 26) on various components of culture, which he claims have been identified after exhaustive literature review. He further divides ACC into behavioral and attitudinal dimensions. The cultural components used by him are:
• For behavioral dimension, cultural components used are:
o Language preferred
o Language actually spoken
o Music preference
o Movies/TV program preference
o Food preference at home
o Food preference outside
o Attire preference
o Reading language preference
o Writing language preference
o Behavior with respect to celebration of festivals

• For attitudinal dimension, cultural components used are:
o Self-identity
o Personal value

The following table (Table 1) compares and contrasts both these approaches on 21 parameters identified by the author:


Table 1: Comparison of AGCC vis-a-vis ACC
Source: author

2.2 Proposed holistic approach to measure consumer acculturation

It may be concluded from table 1 that both these approaches assess two different dimensions related to consumer acculturation, while the former attempts to assess how it occurs, the latter assesses to what extent is it prevalent. For a multidimensional and complex phenomenon like consumer acculturation, understanding of both these dimensions are equally important. Hence, to assess consumer acculturation comprehensively, it is proposed that both these approaches should be used simultaneously to assess this phenomenon. However, care has to be taken to prevent repetition of certain dimensions which are present in both the approaches, e.g. dietary preference (please refer to table 1 for details), to avoid presence of redundant aspects in this proposed cumulative approach.
Also, some pertinent shortcomings of each of the two approaches, e.g. length of AGCC scale due to presence of many repetitive and redundant items, and very limited number of components measured in the attitudinal dimension of ACC scale needs to be addressed. Researches can explore the usage of truncated version of AGCC scale as proposed by Durvasula and Lysonski (2015). However, care has to be taken as this truncated version has been criticized too. Few components like ethnocentric tendencies and assertion of ethnic identity can be included in the attitudinal dimension of ACC scale.
A major critiques for both these approaches is that they are both exclusively survey based approach and hence are prone to shortcomings which any survey based approach faces like incorrect responses, biased responses, lack of clear understanding of what is being asked etc. Though every scale developed to measure anything is prone to this critique, in case of consumer acculturation, it can be mitigated by adding observational and in-depth interview related dimensions to the aforementioned approaches.
Observational dimension would entail that besides eliciting responses from the consumers, their brand consumption and generic overall behavior is also observed and noted by the researcher. This has to be supplemented by a short in-depth interview round wherein the surveyor would ask few open-ended questions which are designed to capture the reason for the respondent’s survey response as well as the observed behavior. Hence an amalgamation of quantitative and qualitative approach to comprehensively measure consumer acculturation is recommended.
A major limitation of this approach is that it would be a time consuming exercise for each respondent and it requires personal interaction between the researcher and the respondent. However, to generate a holistic understanding of such a complex phenomenon like consumer acculturation, such approach is the only way out. Any mitigation to the proposed approach will produce lop-sided results.

Literatúra/List of References

[1]  Adler, N. J., 1983. A typology of management studies involving culture. In: Journal of International Business Studies. 1983, 14(2), pp. 29-47. ISSN 1478-6990.
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Kľúčové slová/Key Words

cultural change, consumer acculturation, globalization
kultúrna zmena, spotrebiteľská akulturácia, globalizácia

JEL klasifikácia



Meranie spotrebiteľskej akulturácie – diskusia o potenciálnom prístupe

Tento článok popisuje, ako globalizácia prináša kultúrne zmeny medzi spotrebiteľmi a prečo tento jav možno študovať pod záštitou spotrebiteľskej akulturácie. Diskusia začína vysvetlením pojmu globalizácia a špecifických faktorov vyvolávajúcich zmeny v konzumnej kultúre. Nasleduje krátky úvod ku kultúre a spôsobu ako jeho komponenty tvoria základňu pre spotrebiteľskú akulturáciu. Následne sú predstavené dva komplexné prístupy merania spotrebiteľskej akulturácie – prístup Acculturation to Global Consumer Culture (AGCC) a prístup Acculturation of Consumer Culture (ACC). V porovnaní s tým je prezentovaný kontrast a kritika týchto prístupov. Záverečná časť tejto práce sa zaoberá rôznymi návrhmi, ktoré by mohli byť začlenené, aby sa meranie spotrebiteľskej akulturácie stalo obsiahlejšie a robustnejšie než aké je vo svojej súčasnej podobe. Navrhuje sa, aby sa oba prístupy AGCC a ACC používali súčasne na meranie spotrebiteľskej akulturácie. Taktiež proces založený na prieskume, ktorý oba tieto prístupy nasledujú, by mal byť ďalej doplnený o pozorovanie a mechanizmy hĺbkových rozhovorov. Z tohto dôvodu sa očakáva, že zlúčenie oboch kvantitatívnych a kvalitatívnych prístupov zberu dát bude predstavovať ideálny spôsob komplexného merania spotrebiteľskej akulturácie.

Kontakt na autorov/Address

Dr. Nitin Gupta, Institute of Management Technology – Hyderabad, Survey No. 38, Cherlaguda Village, Shamshabad Mandal, RR District, Hyderabad- 501218, India, e-mail:
[email protected]


22. február 2016 / 7. marec 2016

Zelená řešení v automobilovém průmyslu jako součást společenské odpovědnosti firem

Zelená řešení v automobilovém průmyslu jako součást společenské odpovědnosti firem

Společenská odpovědnost firem je v marketingu stále diskutovanějším tématem. Její součástí je kromě sociální a ekonomické oblasti právě ochrana životního prostředí, tedy environmentální odpovědnost. Ve spojení s automobilovým průmyslem jde především o vývoj automobilů v oblasti emisí. Tento článek se zabývá otázkou zelených řešení, která na světovém trhu fungují a měla by se stát součástí nových strategií většiny výrobců v rozvinutých zemích.

1. Společenská odpovědnost firem

Společenská odpovědnost firem (ang. Corporate Social Responsibility) je z obecného pohledu chápána jako „využití podnikání pro vytvoření lepšího světa“ (Hes 2014, s. 279). Tím se podnik stává zajímavějším nejen na spotřebitelském trhu, ale také na trhu B2B. Aktivity, které z formulované strategie vyplývají, jsou komplexní. V rámci společenské odpovědnosti firem je kladen důraz na zákonné, etické a společensky odpovědné jednání. Firma musí zajistit znalost a dodržování příslušných zákonů všemi zaměstnanci, eliminaci jednoznačně neetického jednání v rámci podnikáni a vykazování určitého společenského povědomí během jednání se zákazníky a ostatními stakeholdery (Kotler 2013).
Zaznamenáváme dva přístupy k firemním strategiím tvořícím základ pro vyhledávání řešení společenských problémů a problémů životního prostředí, a to přístup reaktivní a proaktivní. Reaktivní přístup znamená snahu zahlazovat problémové oblasti a aktivně nevyhledávat příležitosti ke zlepšení. U proaktivního přístupu se firma aktivně snaží vyhledávat oblasti, kde je možné právě díky inovacím a zlepšením vyřešit společenský problém a tím i zvýšit prodeje a ziskovost. Právě díky těmto proaktivním strategiím a investicím často vznikají inovace v oblasti tzv. „zelených řešení“, jimž je CSR dobrou oporou. (Karjaluoto 2009).

2. Zelená řešení v automobilovém průmyslu

Zelená řešení představují veškerá technická řešení a aktivity firmy, které vedou ke snižování dopadu na životní prostředí nebo stakeholdery. Zelená řešení můžeme považovat za jeden z nástrojů zeleného marketingu. Pojem zelený marketing se začal užívat v 70. letech 20. století. V této době si spotřebitelé začali uvědomovat negativa globalizované produkce a spotřeby zboží a jejich následky pro lidskou společnost. V roce 1973 byl ustanoven první „Environmental Action Programme“ neboli EAP. Následně vznikly další, žádné však nepředstavovaly závaznou legislativu, kterou by se musely členské státy EU řídit. Systematická snaha o vytvoření legislativy vedoucí k ochraně životního prostředí byla a je patrná také ve Spojených Státech. V USA začala být dle Nair a kol. (2003) ochrana životního prostředí patrná v 60. a zejména pak v 70. letech 20. století, kdy vstoupily v platnost zákony jako National Environmental Policy Act či Clean Water Act, které zamezovaly dříve téměř neomezenému poškozování životního prostředí. Zároveň byla v roce 1970 založena EPA neboli „Environmental Protection Agency“, Agentura pro ochranu životního prostředí (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2016).
Zelený marketing se od té doby stal fenoménem. Vše, co je „zelené“, je spotřebiteli přijímáno s větší důvěrou a spotřebitelé zeleným produktům dávají přednost. Tím se označení zelené stává marketingovým nástrojem a přitom naplňuje podstatu společenské odpovědnosti firem.
Výrazný dopad na životní prostředí má automobilový průmysl. Ať už se jedná o těžbu nerostných surovin pro výrobu, přípravu prefabrikátů, výrobu dílů či energeticky náročnou montáž. Sakris (2010) také vhodně uvádí, že i po vyřazení automobilu z provozu zátěž pro životní prostředí není eliminována. Pokud výrobce či jiný podnik nepřevezme zodpovědnost za recyklaci, autovraky mohou ještě dlouhá léta znečišťovat prostředí rzí, odpadem a únikem nebezpečných chemikálií. Nejvýznamnějším negativním důsledkem motorismu jsou emise. Ty tvoří společně s vyjetým motorovým a převodovým olejem zhruba 80 % ekologické zátěže, vzniklé v průběhu životního cyklu vozu. (Orsato a Wells 2006)
Mahamuni a Tambe (2014) ve své studii uvádějí souhrn různých zelených řešení, které jsou používané automobilovými výrobci a jejich dodavateli. Jejich okruhy mohou být vymezeny jako:
1. Minimalizace odpadu a zamezení úniku škodlivých látek
2. Vývoj produktu šetrného k životnímu prostředí
3. Ekologické úpravy funkčnosti či designu stávajících výrobků
4. Změny a zlepšení procesu výroby
5. Vytváření vztahu s dodavateli na bázi udržitelnosti operací firem jako celku a zavedení ekologicky šetrného dodavatelského řetězce
6. Kontrola dopadu výrobku na životní prostředí v průběhu celého životního cyklu, od těžby nerostných materiálů až po demontáž a recyklaci, zpětný pohyb výrobku a materiálu
7. Použití obnovitelných zdrojů energie pro co možná největší část firmy

3. Případová studie – Toyota

Toyota je výrobce automobilů s dlouhou tradicí. Firma byla založena v roce 1937 a postupně se úspěšně rozrostla a dosáhla pozice světové jedničky v produkci vozů (The Telegraph, 2015). Toyota nyní provozuje 55 výrobních závodů ve 28 zemích a dodává vozy do 170 zemí světa. Celkové prodeje skupiny Toyota se v roce 2013 rovnaly zhruba 9 116 000 vozů. Toyota vlastní také výrobce prémiových vozů Lexus, který v roce 2013 prodal 523 000 vozů. Celá skupina Toyota celosvětově zaměstnává více než 350 000 zaměstnanců. Pro lepší ilustrací širokého záběru firemních aktivit je vhodné zmínit, že se kromě vývoje a výroby automobilů a dopravních řešení se skupina Toyota také zabývá biotechnologiemi, zalesňováním, výzkumem a produkcí elektrické energie, stavbou lodí, ekologických rezidenčních objektů nové generace a finančními službami (Toyota Annual Report, 2014).
Toyota je firmou, jejíž operace mají globální dosah. S množstvím vozů, které firma každý rok prodá, na ni také doléhá silná zodpovědnost za ekologické dopady jejich provozování. Závazek k udržitelnosti firemních operací je zanesen přímo ve firemní vizi, kde je také dáván do souvislosti s konstantními inovacemi. Součástí závazku je i tvrzení: „In everything we do, we will show consideration to the planet. We investigate and promote systems and solutions that are eco-friendly (Toyota global vision 2020, 2015).“ Tímto se firma přímo hlásí k vývoji zelených řešení, které mohou být použity v rámci všech firemních aktivit, nejen automobilů. Firma dále uvádí, že stejný přístup je používán i při zakládání nových firemních divizí tak, aby již od samého začátku fungovaly ekologicky šetrně a udržitelně. Tímto Toyota aplikuje proaktivní přístup, tedy aktivně vyhledává oblasti, ve kterých jsou příležitosti pro řešení společenských problémů
Toyota Global Vision Tree na obrázku níže ukazuje, jak má firma uspořádané své hodnoty v duchu udržitelného rozvoje. V kořenech jsou umístěny základní principy, které byly zavedeny zakladatelem firmy, Sakichi Toyodou. Kmen zdůrazňuje nutnost stabilní základny do budoucna, ovoce poté neustálé zlepšování a učení se a přispívání ke zlepšování prostředí, ve kterém žijí lidé. Celá koruna stromu ztvárňuje udržitelný rozvoj, který má potenciál kontinuálně plodit další ovoce.


Obr. 1: Toyota Global Vision Tree Explained
Zdroj: Toyota Sustainability Report 2015, s. 11

Vize společnosti Toyota uvažuje automobily jako svůj klíčový produkt, dále služby globálním komunitám a stabilní rozvoj firmy skrze dobré pracovní prostředí a spokojené a motivované zaměstnance. Zelená řešení je zde možné najít ve všech třech oblastech, nejvíce však ve službě komunitám, kde se firma zavazuje ke snižování dopadu jejich produktů v průběhu celého životního cyklu a zároveň k vývoji nových dopravních systémů, které nebudou produkovat tolik znečištění (Toyota Sustainability Report 2015). Firma momentálně nazývá tento svůj program Toyota Environmental Challenge 2050. Toyota využívá některých vyspělých automobilových trhů, např. Spojených Států (především Kalifornie), domovského Japonska či Francie jako modelová prostředí pro rozvoj další generace zelených řešení (Toyota Environmental Challenge 2050, 2015). Okruhy zelených řešení, kterým se firma Toyota věnuje, se z velké části shoduje s okruhy zelených řešení od Mahamuni a Tambe (2014).

Zelená řešení firmy Toyota lze rozčlenit do následujících okruhů:
1.  ekologicky šetrné vozy – hybridy, elektromobily, vozy na vodíkový pohon
2.  ekologicky šetrná produkce vozů a správa firemních operací, včetně nakládání s odpady, surovinami, energií a vodou
3.  nové systémy mobility – autonomní vozidla, optimalizace provozu, inteligentní dopravní systémy
4.  společenská iniciativa ke zlepšení soužití s přírodou – akční programy a vzdělávání

Vývoj a produkce ekologicky šetrných vozů je vytyčeno přímo ve strategické vizi firmy. U tradičních vozů se spalovacím pohonem Toyota intenzivně propaguje technologie ze tří oblastí: zvyšování efektivnosti motorů a převodovek, energetické efektivnosti systémů (start-stop systém, rekuperace, řízení toků tepelné energie) a redukce odporových sil (snížení hmotnosti, valivého odporu a odporu vzduchu). Toyota se také již dlouhou dobu zabývá výrobou vozů s alternativními pohony. Model Prius byl v roce 1997 prvním hybridním vozem, který se dostal do sériové výroby. V roce 2013 firma vyráběla celosvětově již 23 hybridních modelů, včetně tzv. plug-in hybridů, tedy hybridních vozidel, které jsou schopné pohonu pouze na elektrický proud (Green Car Reports, 2013). V roce 2015 do modelového portfolia přibyl technicky vyspělý model Mirai, který místo hybridních technologií využívá k pohonu vodík a palivové články. Toyota se v rámci své filosofie zavazuje k udržení růstu globálních teplot o méně než 2°C do roku 2100. K dosažení tohoto cíle je nutné, aby se celková lidská produkce skleníkových plynů v podstatě zastavila, a aby byl započat reverzní trend, tedy absorpce těchto plynů zpět do jiných materiálů a substancí. Toyota se zavazuje snížit emise vyprodukované svými vozy o 90% do roku 2050 (Toyota Environmental Challenge 2050, 2015).
Vozy s alternativním pohonem Toyota velmi silně podporuje, především na svých globálních korporátních stránkách. Alternativní pohony a udržitelnost však nemají podobu, na rozdíl od informačních portálů některých ostatních automobilových výrobců, pouhé jedné ze sekcí mezi nabízenými zdroji. Toyota k této problematice, díky své filozofii přistupuje mnohem komplexněji. Celý webový informační portál je postaven na vizi firmy, jejíž jsou alternativní pohony a udržitelnost nedílnou a podstatnou součástí. K novému vozu na vodíkový pohon, který byl představen v Kalifornii, Toyota přikládá silnou informační kampaň jak o této technologii, tak i o administrativních překážkách, které jsou s masovým rozšířením tohoto typu pohonu spojeny, čímž stimuluje veřejnost k širší podpoře. Toyota zde velmi dobře využívá postupy zeleného marketingu, vč. proaktivního přístupu, tedy vyhledává společenský problém (zhoršování životního prostředí) a aktivně k němu směřuje zraky veřejnosti. Zároveň k tomuto problému přikládá řešení v podobě vyspělého alternativního pohonu. Tím se, v ideálním případě, podaří vytvořit jakýsi symbiotický dlouhodobý vztah mezi veřejností, jejíž problém bude vyřešen a firmou, která dosáhne stabilního odbytu a zisku.
Další oblastí, ve které Toyota intenzivně pracuje na zelených řešeních, je produkce vozů, respektive komplexněji správa veškerých firemních operací. Produkcí vozů v tomto kontextu není myšlen pouze průtok materiálů výrobními procesy až po konečnou montáž a expedici vozu, nicméně také veškeré činnosti až k dobývání nerostných surovin. Z druhé strany řetězce Toyota míří směrem k totálnímu managementu životního cyklu, tedy až k ekologicky šetrné likvidaci všech svých vozů a recyklaci použitých materiálů. Toyota chce dosáhnout nulové uhlíkové stopy v rámci celého životního cyklu zefektivněním výroby vozů. Výrobní proces bude zkrácen na minimum, pro výrobu vozů budou vyvinuty nové rozložitelné materiály, jejichž produkce nebude zatěžovat životní prostředí. Dále bude snížena komplexita dílů, ze kterých se vozy skládají. Všechny pohyblivé části výrobních linek budou analyzovány a optimalizovány skrze systém neustálého zlepšování Kaizen tak, aby k jejich udržení v pohybu bylo zapotřebí co nejméně energie. Ve výrobě se bude důsledně využívat zbytková tepelná či kinetická energie. Tím, společně se zkrácením procesu výroby vozů, bude spotřebováno i méně elektrické energie a vody. Velká část elektřiny pro výrobu bude čerpána z obnovitelných zdrojů, například solárních panelů či vodíkových elektráren. I tyto zdroje budou řízeny a rozvíjeny Toyotou (Toyota Environmental Challenge 2050, 2015). Obr. 11 a 12 ukazují, co tvoří hlavní zdroje uhlíkové stopy vozů a jaký má plán na jejich redukci do budoucna. Veřejnost je tímto informována, jaké jsou hlavní materiály a postupy, díky kterým Toyota v budoucnu hodlá zmírnit dopad na životní prostředí.


Obr. 2: Plán na snížení emisí v rámci celého životního cyklu
Zdroj: Challenge 2:Life Cycle Zero CO₂ Emissions Challenge, Presentation, s. 3


Obr. 3: Struktura emisí CO₂ v průběhu životního cyklu vozu
Zdroj: Challenge 2:Life Cycle Zero CO₂ Emissions Challenge, Presentation, s. 4

Toyota se dále aktivně podílí na vývoji nových, inteligentních dopravních systémů. Studie společnosti KPMG, Global Automotive Executive Survey 2016, která zpovídala 800 vedoucích pracovníků z automobilového průmyslu celosvětově, uvádí, že horkým trendem v následujících letech bude konektivita a digitalizace (KPM International, 2016). Právě na těchto trendech jsou založeny moderní inteligentní dopravní systémy. Toyota, mimo jiné, rozvíjí takovýto projekt ve francouzském Grenoblu. Projekt se jmenuje „Ha:mo“ a kombinuje optimalizaci cest pomocí chytrých mobilních aplikací a sdílení malých elektrických vozidel Toyota, která jsou umístěna na propojených nabíjecích stanicích po celém městě. Lidé tak mají na svých chytrých telefonech přístup k aktuálním informacím, kde nejblíže je možné si elektromobil vypůjčit a kde zase vrátit tak, aby co nejlépe optimalizovali svou cestu k cíli. Systém dále spolupracuje s městskou hromadnou dopravou, zohledňuje aktuální provoz a nabízí tak multimodální řešení, které je velice šetrné k životnímu prostředí a zároveň významným způsobem pomáhá zredukovat městský provoz (Toyota Motor Corporation, 2016).
K dosažení trvale udržitelného rozvoje se Toyota soustředí také na šetrné zacházení s odpady a s vodou. Do svého programu chce začlenit i firmy a jednotlivce ze svého okolí tak, aby nejen výroba, ale také komunity k ní přiléhající důsledně recyklovaly co možná nejvíce materiálů. Staré automobily a odpady z jejich provozu budou ve velké míře použity při výrobě nových vozů. Tím bude možné předejít vyčerpání nerostných surovin a vzniku některých závažných společenských problémů. Podobný postup chce firma ve velkém měřítku aplikovat i v hospodaření s vodou. Dle její predikce stoupne do roku 2050 poptávka po vodě o více než 50% v důsledku růstu světové populace na více než 9 miliard lidí. Šetření s vodou, filtrace, recyklace a zachycování dešťové vody jsou některé z řešení, jež firma Toyota využívá (Challenge 5:Challenge of Establishing a Recycling-based Society and Systems, Toyota, 2015).
V neposlední řadě se firma Toyota snaží o zlepšení životního prostředí přes své akční a vzdělávací programy. Akční programy zahrnují vysazování stromů v globálním měřítku, kde zaměstnanci firmy, jejich rodiny a další zájmové skupiny celosvětově vysázely zhruba 8,7 milionu stromů. Zalesňování probíhá nejen v okolí továren a přidružených závodů, ale je systematicky zpracováno. Každý rok vyhlásí Toyota zhruba 100 grantů, které slouží k financování projektů a do kterých zalesňování zapadá. Jako příklady projektů zaštítěných těmito granty lze dále uvést zastavení desertifikace v některých oblastech Číny, ochrana vzácných živočišných a rostlinných druhů v Jižní Americe či vytváření „zelených koridorů“ k propojení civilizací separovaných biotopů v globálním měřítku. Toyota dále financuje velké množství vzdělávacích projektů po celém světě. Mezi takové iniciativy patří zakládání tzv. „environmental centers“, kde se mohou obyvatelé dané země (především děti), naučit o přírodě a nutnosti její ochrany a podpory do budoucna. V rámci těchto institucí je také prováděn přírodovědný výzkum a jsou zde organizovány vzdělávací pobyty pro děti a studenty. Toyota v rámci těchto aktivit sleduje a zpracovává data o úspěšnosti svých projektů. Tato data slouží k ustavení různých KPI, které určují, zda je firma na správné cestě k dosažení svých závazků vůči životnímu prostředí a zájmových skupinám, které si vytyčila (Challenge 6: Challenge of Establishing a Future Society in Harmony with Nature, Toyota, 2015).


Článek byl zpracován jako výstup z první etapy Studentské grantové soutěže na ŠKODA AUTO Vysoké škole na téma „Vnímání zeleného marketingu mladou generací s aplikací na automobilový trh“. Části textu jsou součástí diplomové práce Bc. Martina Dolejšího, která byla plánována jako jeden z výstupů projektu.

Literatúra/List of References

[1] Green Car Reports, 2013. Toyota Sells 23 Hybrids Globally; How Many Can You Name?. Hybrid and Electric Car News and Reviews – Green Car Reports, 2013. [online]. [cit. 2015-11-07]. Dostupné na: <>
[2] Hes, A. et al., 2014. Obchodní nauka. Praha: Česká zemědělská univerzita v Praze, 2014. ISBN 978-80-213-2408-4.
[3] Challenge 2: Life Cycle Zero CO 2.,2015. Toyota Motor Corporation Global website, 2015. [online]. [cit. 2015-11-07]. Dostupné na: <>
[4] Challenge 5: Challenge of Establishing a Recycling-based Society and Systems, 2015. Toyota motor corporation global website, 2015. [online]. [cit. 2015-11-07]. Dostupné na: <>
[5] Challenge 6, Challenge of Establishing a Future Society in Harmony with Nature, 2015. Toyota motor corporation global website, 2015. [online]. [cit. 2015-11-15]. Dostupné na: <>
[6] Karjaluoto, H. a Vaccaro, V. L., 2009. B2B green marketing and innovation theory for competitive advantage. Journal of Systems and Information Technology, 2009. [online]. [cit. 2015-10-31]. Dostupné na: <>
[7] Kotler, P. a Keller, L. K., 2013. Marketing management. Praha: Grada Publishing, 2013. ISBN 978-80-247-4150-5.
[8] Mahamuni, A. a Tambe, M., 2014. Green Marketing in Automobile and Ancillary Industry: Issues and Implications. Journal of Commerce and Management Thought, 2014. [online]. [cit. 2015-11-01]. Dostupné na: <>
[9] Nair, I. et al., 2003. History of Environmental Regulations in the USA. Environmental Decision Making, Science, and Technology, 2003. [online]. [cit. 2016-02-23]. Dostupné na: <>
[10] Orsato, R. J. a Wells, P, 2007. U-turn: the rise and demise of the automobile industry. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2007. [online]. [cit. 2015-11-06]. Dostupné na: <>
[11] Sarkis, J. a Nunes, B. a Bennett, D., 2010. Green operations initiatives in the automotive industry. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 2010. [online]. [cit. 2015-11-02]. Dostupné na: <>
[12] Toyota Environmental Challenge 2050, 2015. Toyota motor corporation global website, 2015. [online]. [cit. 2015-11-07]. Dostupné na: <>
[13] Toyota Annual Report, 2014. Toyota motor corporation global website, 2015. [online]. [cit. 2015-11-07]. Dostupné na: <>
[14] Toyota Sustainability Report, 2015. Toyota motor corporation global website, 2015. [online]. [cit. 2015-11-07]. Dostupné na: <>
[15] Toyota Motor Corporation, 2016. The future of mobility is on the move: Ha:mo service in Grenoble, France. Toyota motor corporation global website, 2016. [online]. [cit. 2016-03-01]. Dostupné na: <>
[16] Toyota overtakes VW as biggest carmaker in the world, 2015. The Telegraph – Telegraph online, Daily Telegraph, Sunday Telegraph – Telegraph, 2015. [online]. [cit. 2015-11-06]. Dostupné na: <>
[17] United States Environmental Protection Agency. EPA History, 2016. US Environmental Protection Agency, 2016. [online]. [cit. 2016-02-23]. Dostupné na: <>

Kľúčové slová/Key Words

společenská odpovědnost, zelený marketing, zelená řešení, automobilový průmysl, Toyota
corporate social responsibility, green marketing, green solutions, automotive industry, Toyota

JEL klasifikácia



Green solutions in the automotive industry as part of the corporate social responsibility

Corporate social responsibility is in the marketing much more often debated topic. It includes currently, in addition to social and economic area, protection of natural environment and the environmental responsibility. In connection with the automotive industry it is especially focused on the development of the automobile emissions. This article deals with the question of green solutions that operate in the global market and should become a part of the new strategies of the most manufacturers in the developed countries. This paper refers to corporate social responsibility in automotive. The aim of the paper is automotive green solutions introduction. Case study shows Toyota green solutions as best practice in automotive business.

Kontakt na autorov/Address

Bc. Martin Dolejší, ŠKODA AUTO Vysoká škola o.p.s., Na Karmeli 1457, 293 01 Mladá Boleslav, Česká republika, e-mail: [email protected]

Ing. Eva Jaderná, Ph. D., ŠKODA AUTO Vysoká škola o.p.s., Na Karmeli 1457, 293 01 Mladá Boleslav, Česká republika, e-mail: [email protected]

doc. Ing. Jana Přikrylová, Ph. D., ŠKODA AUTO Vysoká škola o.p.s., Na Karmeli 1457, 293 01 Mladá Boleslav, Česká republika, e-mail: [email protected]


3. júna 2016 / 6. júna 2016

Advertising reshaped – new trends bring new challenges. How to cope with them?

Advertising reshaped – new trends bring new challenges. How to cope with them?

These days we are used to start our research papers, presentations, or business meetings that regard advertising with a deeply embedded presumption of and confidence in our knowledge about it. Throughout the modern history, each generation built its own understanding on this subject, reflecting the time and circumstances they lived in. What is interesting to observe is how each generation has the same confidence in knowing, but the knowledge itself is not the same. These occasional and gradual switches in understanding advertising are qualified by some as smooth development, and by others as big paradigm shifts.

1. Introduction

Authors approach advertising from their own aspect, time, and point of interest. For instance, Cheong, De Gregorio, and Kim (2014, p. 345-347) see advertising as „an intuitive, visible, and concrete solution to declining/stagnant sales or an added driver of continuing success when sales are increasing“. In addition, Richards and Curran (2002, p. 63) see in it „the activity of attracting public attention to a product or business, as by paid announcements in the print, broadcast, or electronic media“. Cramphorn (2014, p. 571) thinks that „the purpose of advertising is an attempt to strengthen positive brand feelings, i.e. to increase brand bonding in order to enhance long-term purchase intent. It is generally presumed this will happen following exposure to an ad“. According to the literature of Rosengren and Dahlen (2015, p. 4), „advertising can be thought of as an exchange of value between advertisers and consumers, and the value offered to consumers in advertising will determine whether it is attended to“. Those that over the years preferred to tease with advertising as a concept threw around few thoughts which Richards and Curran (2002, p. 63) summarized and showed how for someone advertising was „selling corn flakes to people who are eating Cheerios“, for others „a symbol-manipulation occupation“, or „the cave art of the twentieth century“, or simply „the life of trade“.
If we continue in this direction and follow the development of the understanding of advertising throughout the years, we will probably conclude the research with the concept of social media as the latest trend praised among advertisers. It can be argued that it is indeed social media that these days stands as a proud representative of new media, which overall stands against traditional advertising.
This „war“ between traditional advertising and new media is the main point for discussion in the work.

2. Goal and Methodology

Our initial mental position that sparked the idea to write on this subject was brainstorming on questions such as: will new media ever substitute traditional advertising? Can they coexist and merge in more complete concept? Are new trends really solving the problems of traditional advertising and aren’t they bringing along their own challenges to cope with? Aren’t we becoming blinded by the appeal of new technologies used in advertising? Don’t we take for granted the success they promise, failing to notice or ignoring potential drawbacks and misuse?
The nature of the studied subject is in favor and requires qualitative research. We are not collecting large samples of opinions from random respondents, and deriving to conclusions based on matrix-like cross fitting of answers and feedbacks. Instead, referring to Hendl (1999), we are absorbing knowledge by qualitative analysis of focused studies characterized by expert opinions and results. Hence, the tone is of narrative format, whereas the discussion of the findings is interconnected throughout the analysis itself.

3. Research and Discussion

3.1 Opening a New Chapter in Advertising

There is a very interesting claim that „in recent years, a number of scholars have expressed concern about…the progression of advertising as an academic field“ (Kyongseok at al. 2014, p. 296). The source of this concern is that although there are studies of scholarly publishing, since 1988, few attempts have been made to comprehensively analyze the progression of academic advertising research. This slow pace does not fit the academic needs since we know that the most influential definitions of advertising are describing it as „a dynamic, continuously developing activity“ (Tomiuc 2015, p. 4). In fact, it seems that advertising is turning into an ad-hoc science, as even older quotes refer to the basic principles of advertising which even in 1923 asserted that „it may not be of great value to devote a large amount of space to analyzing and discussing the history of a subject when we are primarily interested in the practical problems on the present day“ (Norris 1980, p. 10). And as we will see further, indeed there are a lot of open questions to be addressed.
Influential theories from the 1960s, still dictate today that „advertising takes people from unawareness to awareness, from awareness to comprehension, from comprehension to conviction, from conviction to desire and from desire to action“ (Wood 2014, p. 213).
In 1994, some authors were predicting the death of traditional, outbound advertising stating that „by the year 2010, new media and the new marketing will be the dominant paradigm“ (Petrescu and Korgaonkar 2011, p. 208). While these days traditional advertising is still up and running, the second part of the prophecy is not far from the truth. Truly, what has been considered as new and perceived as challenge in those days, might be something that is seen as common and straightforward today, such as the reality that back then even „professionals may find it challenging to pigeonhole some activities, such as word of mouth and product placement in movies“ (Richards and Curran 2002, p. 63).
The challenges of today’s advertising seem to be even more sophisticated and demanding. For instance, we have authors that reconfirm the obvious perception that „consumers live in a complex media environment, however, with many activities competing for a limited amount of attention“ (Spotts et al. 2014, p. 465). Then, there are authors that don’t just deal with this situation, but challenge it even further to consider that „emotional campaigns are more profitable than rational campaigns, and that attention is “not always necessary” and “not always sufficient” for success“ (Wood 2014, p. 212). In fact, Caslavova, Dvorak, and Voracek (2014, p. 61), focusing on the question why companies might leave a sponsorship relationship, reached a conclusion that one of the major three reasons was because „advertising seemed to be ineffective“. Therefore, to present „a motivating and modern offer of product that would match continuous requirements of companies“ marketing and communicative targets is still alpha and omega of the success rate of sponsorship contracts conclusions“ (Caslavova and Dvorak and Voracek 2014, p. 58), especially as big and medium companies paid lot of attention to proving the efficiency of sponsorship.
The first challenge that comes to the minds of those involved is the question of advertising spending efficiency (ASE) which evolved into an “overspending perspective” and the “smart manager perspective”. Cheong et al. (2014, p. 344) explain the first view which „predicts that due to various client – and agency-side incentives and reward structures, as well as the increasingly complex media environment, overall ASE would continuously remain low over time“, whereas the second one „(broadly adapted from the organizational learning field) leads to the opposite conclusion: Overall ASE will improve over time as successful organizations and their advertising/marketing managers learn from past experience and data, thus calibrating their efforts“ (Cheong et al. 2014, p. 344). However, one should not be illusioned to link the overspending with traditional and the smart with new as findings suggest that US advertisers inefficiently overspent in the period from 1985 to 2012 by an average of 34%, where the „Internet, a medium highly praised and utilized for the amount and depth of consumer data it generates, has not impacted overall efficiency in any meaningful way (Cheong et al. 2014, p. 344).

3.2 Facts and figures as indicators of trends and challenges

Many marketing experts, and especially the large audience, would put their bet on the expectation that most of the advertising today is done through new media. Truly, „in 1997 the Internet’s share was less than 1%; but that share has risen to approximately 20% today“ (Goldfarb  and Tremblay 2014, p. 113), which clearly indicates that Internet advertising has made dramatic gains in market share. However, the authors note that „television remains the largest advertising medium with a 40% share of total advertising spending“ (Goldfarb  and Tremblay 2014, p. 113), which might suggest that television could keep up with modern trends, and even integrate and synergize with them through modernization and creativity.
Further growth in the Internet advertising business is to be expected due to the „proliferation of different pricing schemes. In addition to the traditional pay-per-impression (PPI; also known as cost per mile) pricing, many pay-for-performance (P4P) schemes such as pay per click (PPC; also known as cost per click), pay per sale (PPS), pay per action (PPA), and pay per lead are now prevalent“ (Liu and Viswanathan 2015, p. 609).
Nevertheless, not Internet, but Mobile advertising is one of the fastest growing advertising formats. „In 2013, global spending on mobile advertising was approximately $16.7 billion, and it is expected to exceed $62.8 billion by 2017 (Bart et al. 2014, p. 270). This projection has solid grounds if we know that „91% of the U.S. adult population uses some type of mobile phone, and 61% of U.S. adult mobile users have a smartphone“ and moreover „in 2013, the average U.S. adult spent approximately 20% of his or her daily media time on mobile devices (Bart et al. 2014, p.270). Notably, the authors conclude, „most of the forecasted growth in global digital advertising spending over the next few years is due to expected increases in mobile advertising, which is anticipated to constitute approximately 36% of global digital advertising expenditures by 2017“ (Bart et al. 2014, p. 271). At the same time we can say “wait; not so fast”. „Despite strong interest, marketers“ beliefs about the effectiveness of mobile advertising seem to be at best mixed, if not negative. For example, the CMO Council’s survey of global marketing executives revealed that only 14% of surveyed marketers were satisfied with how they were leveraging mobile advertising channels. Instead, 43% of respondents reported that they were not satisfied with their mobile advertising efforts, and 46% reported that they were reviewing the role of mobile advertising in their organizations. Marketers nevertheless intend to keep searching for ways to use mobile advertising effectively. For example, a survey of brand marketers revealed that 69% of respondents expect to increase their use of mobile advertising in the near future. Many companies, however, approach mobile advertising with a “spray-and-pray” mentality—that is, placing advertisements without any sense of how effective they will be“ (Bart et al. 2014, p. 271).
Another new media which enjoys great success lately, and it is predicted to have a great future, is social media. In fact, „the rapid growth of social media has led to speculation that it might supplant television as the primary mode of modern advertising. The exponential increase in spending on advertising in social media – from $5.1 billion in 2013 to a projected $15 billion in 2018 – indicates that advertisers increasingly are attracted to this medium“ (Spotts et al. 2014, p. 455).
What is mutual and what bonds together all the traditional and new media, is the common advertising goal to generate word-of-mouth (WOM). This preferred outcome might not represent a new trend in advertising as such, but it is certainly approached with more strategic directions and studied with higher attention. In fact, „spending on marketing activities generating WOM in the United States was estimated at $1.54 billion in 2008 and expected to grow to an annual growth rate of 14.5% until 2013“ (Cho et al. 2014, p. 100). These efforts actually develop a new trend in advertising, called behavioral targeting, which is becoming a sizable industry on its own. Indeed, Jianqing and Stallaert (2014) estimated that „online advertisers spent more than $1.3 billion in targeted advertising in 2011, and the figure is expected to rise to more than $2.6 billion in 2014“ (p. 430).

3.3 Viral Marketing – the initial spark that links traditional and new media

Viral marketing seems to have a crucial position in the interactive media environment, where „consumers not only have more control over when and how they are exposed to and process advertising messages but also actively generate and spread market place information. Advertising scholars and practitioners have begun to explore how to use the expanded channels of consumer interactions for marketing communication purposes“ (Cho et al. 2014, p. 100).
Even though viral marketing might not be a new terminology and it existed as a concept back in the era of traditional media, it certainly became more exposed, used and misused, in connection and automatic association with new media. Petrescu and Korgaonkar (2011, p. 216) differentiate several variations the term “viral marketing” includes such as word-of-mouth (the message is perceived as non-commercial), word-of-mouse (positive or negative statement about a product or company spread via the Internet), buzz marketing (message is initiated by a third party, but transmitted from peer to peer), and viral advertising (message originating from an identified sponsor using the Internet to provoke unpaid peer to peer communication).
At the end of the day, we can say that the key, but also the precaution, to successful viral marketing is that fact that the „source trust is a particularly important factor in explaining viral advertising effects, because viral ad messages have elements of both media advertising and interpersonal communication, which differ greatly in regard to trust. The advertiser is the original source of an ad message, and advertisements are usually viewed skeptically because their intention is to persuade consumers to buy a product. However, viral messages are passed on from friends or family members who are seen to have the consumers“ best interests at heart. This unique combination should, therefore, make source trust a particularly interesting and important factor in determining viral advertising effects“ (Cho et al. 2014, p. 100).

3.4 Behavioral advertising – an ace in the pocket? Or we are going too far?

Data collected from online advertising networks find that „prices and conversion rates (i.e., the likelihood of a click eventually leading to a sale) for behaviorally targeted advertisements are more than twice as high as those for traditional advertising (Jianqing and Stallaert 2014, p. 432). So, what is this behavioral advertising about?
This radical and recent innovation in targeted advertising, as these authors say, is „a technology aimed at increasing the effectiveness of advertising by online publishers. Behavioral targeting uses information collected from an individual’s web-browsing behavior (e.g., the pages that they have visited or the searches they have conducted) to select advertisements to display“ (Jianqing and Stallaert 2014, p. 430). They even go further to hail this technique as the “Holy Grail” in online advertising because of its potential effectiveness.
Truly, if we continue the chapter in this tone of voice, we can only praise this technique and celebrate another milestone in the history of advertising. However, we, as consumers, might pause for a second and think, once we realize that „a recent study by The Wall Street Journal found that the nation’s top 50 websites install, on average, 64 pieces of tracking technology, usually without any notification to users“ (Jianqing and Stallaert, 2014, p. 430). Therefore, „consumers might perceive personalized ad content on such sites as more appealing and more aligned with their interests, but they also may view it as both creepy and off-putting if they believe that the firm violated their privacy. These privacy concerns may lead to “reactance” such that consumers resist the ad’s appeal. Reactance is a motivational state in which consumers resist something they find coercive by behaving in the opposite way to that intended“ (Tucker 2014, p. 546).
At this point, we can only admit that we are at the beginnings of understanding, yet studying and solving these challenges. As we mention throughout this paper, we believe that the correct way for coping with new trends is to stop comparing them with traditional approaches and choosing the first or the second. Instead, we support the idea to make attempts to combine them together, extract the best and suppress the backdrops from each, and try to create a surrounding where they can coexist.

3.5 Comparing and choosing is out-fashioned; combining and synergy is the future

We seem to be preoccupied with the apparent need to directly compare traditional advertising and new media. Many feel that after scrutinizing analysis of each advertising vehicle, the next logical step is to choose between one or another. Having this embedded approach as certain kind of paradigm, the outcome from the decision making process of different advertisers would be rather polarized. At the end of the day, both sides might be challenged as „because some consumers have shifted their media consumption away from television and toward various online formats, a concern arises whether brand-building activities can be transferred easily across formats“ (Draganska et al. 2014, p. 586).
To be fair, feedback from observing traditional channels and new platforms individually are still valuable and necessary, especially taking into account the goals and objectives the advertising message aims to achieve. For example, traditional models of brand communication campaigns are measured by recall and recognition. „In the digital environment, brands now must use advertising to establish interpersonal connectedness through “taxability” and sharing“ (Spotts et al. 2014, p. 457). With Internet advertising, however, new technologies track advertising exposure and sales at the individual consumer level“ (Goldfarb and Tremblay 2014, p. 114). However, when the Internet truly became a core advertising medium, the level of inefficiency has risen to its highest levels across our 28-year time span“ (Cheong et al. 2014, p. 355).
Now, while we are in a very early phase to claim that the advertising (r)evolution and future relies on a successful synergy between various old and new advertising channels, we can suggest some indicators which boost confidence.
As a starting point we can take the observation that „the current marketing environment is characterized by a surge in multichannel shopping and increasing choice of advertising channels. This situation requires firms to understand how advertising in one channel (e.g., online) influences sales in another channel (e.g., offline)“ (Dinner et al. 2014, p. 527). The authors, in fact suggest that „online and offline advertising, like online and offline purchase channels, should not be managed in silos. Cross effects suggest that online ads can be used as a way to grow the offline channel, and this requires cooperation and coordination“ (Dinner et al. 2014, p. 527). For instance, they say, „it is not uncommon for customers to use the Internet as a “channel” and the offline store as the “purchase channel” (Dinner et al. 2014, p. 528).
Hence, we are curious to see if online as a synonym for new, and offline, as a synonym for traditional, can be combined, and we would like to inspire scholars and practitioners to think in this direction when creating their advertising plans. Hence, at this point we can present one example as a starting platform for further development of ideas.
Namely, the study of Spotts et al., (2014, p. 454) „found evidence that the relationship between traditional television advertising and online social-media conversations was reciprocal, with both media platforms working in tandem to enhance brand engagement“. Moreover, the connections of these two media platforms seem to coexist better, and change the consumer behavior better, in comparison with the relationships among other media. Furthermore, television advertising seems to revive its interest among the public due to its ability to develop brands and to reinforce social media efforts. In practice, „many advertisers are using their advertising to encourage interactive online behaviors through technologies such as hashtags, QR codes, and other links. Their efforts have been supplemented by the enhanced Web applications of mobile and tablet platforms“ (Spotts et al. 2014, p. 455). These effects would be tied to traditional measures related to memory, liking, persuasion, and/or behavioral response“ (Spotts et al. 2014, p. 457).
This goes perfectly hand in hand with our next opinion that dares to ask „who is in charge“?

3.6 Advertising voluntarily approached by consumers. A dream or reality?

Spotts et al. (2014, p. 457) introduce a new approach to understanding advertising. They claim that „we have entered into an “age of engagement” with social currency being a primary objective“. In this regard, „advertisement engagement is a critical factor, as engaged consumers more likely will attend to—and process—advertising and talk about brands“ (Spotts et al. 2014, p. 456). “Engagement” actually has no established universal definition or measurement, even though it is a concept that receives much scrutiny among marketers and marketing researchers. One way to analyze this approach is to link “engagement” with the evolution of advertising from involuntary to voluntary. In this regard, „we acknowledge what many consider to be a paradigm shift in advertising, in that advertisers increasingly rely on consumer willingness to voluntarily approach advertising“ (Rosengren and Dahlen 2015, p. 1). If advertisers want to embrace this new paradigm as their bet for successful future, they need to ask themselves “who is in charge?”. Moreover, they need to give up the assumed rights to control their advertising efforts, or at least understand as fast as possible the fact that the market (r)evolution is  tacitly passing those rights to the opposite end, i.e. to the consumers. Truly, the Internet, and later the social media has changed the rules of the game, adding interaction, targeted communication, and better evaluation, all at lower cost. „Social-media advertising uses social communities, such as social networks and virtual worlds as an advertising medium, just as traditional advertising focuses on the television platform“ (Petrescu and Korgaonkar 2011, p. 213), only now the consumer is in control.  Hence, for example, social conversations reflect high audience engagement where people not just tolerate the advertising, but seek it out and embrace it (Spotts et al. 2014, p. 456).
In fact, advertising research has, to date, „somewhat paradoxically focused on consumer advertising avoidance behaviors – for instance, by investigating how certain programs influence ad avoidance, perceptual tricks to capture attention during incidental exposure, and/or any brand effects that may occur in spite of such avoidance“ (Rosengren and Dahlen 2015, p. 1). The authors define this advertising avoidance as „all actions. . . that differentially reduce their exposure to ad content“ (Rosengren and Dahlen 2015, p. 3), but they rather urge that less is known about the flipside – namely, what causes consumers to willingly increase their exposure to certain advertising content.
As mentioned earlier, we are only at the beginning of exploring this new paradigm of emotional engagement and the concept of switching from involuntarily to voluntarily approaching advertising. Furthermore, the elaborated studies have focused only on certain aspects of willingness to approach; additional studies are needed to „explore advertising approach in terms of willingness to process, willingness to interact with, and willingness to pass on advertising“ (Rosengren and Dahlen 2015, p. 11).

3.7 Can we dare to challenge the definition of advertising?

„The definition of advertising has never been more unclear“ quote Campbell et al. (2014, p. 7) referring to the feelings of many contemporary authors and advertising experts.
One of the most interesting aspects is to observe how every word and notion can be interpreted, taking into account changes in practices or development of trends over time. „Traditional definitions of advertising include a series of elements that distinguish the field from others. Each innovation in communication has been used for advertising, and in some way, each has changed advertising, which in turn has changed the set of elements used in its definition. However, there are or should be some essential elements that determine whether an activity is advertising“ (Richards and Curran 2002, p. 63).
Having in mind that there are more than one definitions of advertising, and hence more approaches to challenge and criticize, we will point out the work of Richards and Curran (2002), who chose to analyze one of the most accepted definitions, which originally says that „advertising is a paid non-personal communication from an identified sponsor, using mass media to persuade or influence an audience“ (Richards and Curran 2002, p. 64). If we put Internet into the equation, as the most obvious new technology, then advertising becomes more “personal” and calls the “non-personal” element into question. Next, „merchandising, or putting an ad message on an article of clothing or other product, can pass ad costs to a consumer who buys that product. So the question of whether a definition need to include “paid” is also problematic if we interpret “paid” to mean it is a cost to the advertiser. But if we interpret it as cost to anyone, then this element probably would encompass every marketing communication, including public relations“ (Richards and Curran 2002, p. 66). Furthermore, they prefer to substitute “identifiable” for “identified” to accommodate the problem of teaser ads, and so as well chose to use “source” instead of “sponsor”, while omitting the unnecessary word “influence”. “Mass media” is replaced by “mediated”, and “non-personal” is dropped. Finally, a broad call to action is added. Hence, the authors derived a “non-consensual” but still “majority opinion” modified definition which says that „advertising is a paid, mediated form of communication from an identifiable source, designed to persuade the receiver to take some action, now or in the future“ (Richards and Curran 2002, p. 74). The definition retains “paid” and “persuade” which authors and panelists in the research considered important. Indeed, the most notable changes are the removal of “non-personal” and “mass”, which widened it to embrace the Internet.
The above mentioned example is just one of the ways to challenge traditional definitions of advertising. New trends and practices will only further question the way we approach and experience the industry. For instance, „buffeted by falling readership – and corresponding falls in advertising revenue – the news media also blur the definition of advertising. Eager for new sources of revenue, many publications have shifted from selling advertisements to also selling editorial control“ (Campbell et al. 2014, p. 7).

4. Conclusion

Advertising industry is developing at such a rapid pace that scholars don’t manage to catch up on studying all the aspects. It seems that advertising absorbed an ad-hoc image where the market learns as it goes, without a possibility to systematically assess if the industry drives in the right direction and if all the innovations bring the expected results. Marketers and advertisers are left to be driven by their own gut feelings whereas market researches and business analysis serve rather as comforting alibi instead of substantial contributors to the decision making. Indeed, this work shows that facts and figures on traditional and new media advertising might bring only more confusion, as every positive inclination towards any of them can be instantly discharged with an adverse evidence.
As future expectations are that this fast development will keep the same pace, we aim to convince those involved, or at least provoke, to look at traditional and new media not as subjects for comparison, but as items that can be combined, synergize, work together, and help each other. At the end of the day, both approaches are just vehicles for achieving common goals.
These views and opinions, we believe, might give the impulse to the notion of “advertising equity”, a terminology that in fact already exists, and a concept that should make the life of advertisers easier in terms of planning and forecasting, and should help scholars in their efforts to academically progress the (r)evolution of advertising.

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Kľúčové slová/Key Words

advertising, traditional advertising, new media, new trends, comparison
reklama, tradičná reklama, nové média, nové trendy, porovnanie

JEL klasifikácia



Zmenená reklama – nové trendy prinášajú nové výzvy. Ako sa s nimi vyrovnať?

Trh ponúka niekoľko nesmelých príkladov pokusov, ktoré zvýšia dôveru v experimentovanie a investovanie do nových reklamných modelov. Preto je dôležité stanoviť od samého začiatku jasné definície pre správne pochopenie oblasti, v ktorej operujú inzerenti. V skutočnosti, reklama ako taká je napádaná pre svoj veľmi základný význam a má tendenciu byť chápaná rozlične rôznymi profilmi širokej populácie. Okrem toho je tiež dôležité definovať priamočiare ciele toho, čo sa očakáva, že bude dosiahnuté pomocou reklamného úsilia. V skutočnosti sme videli, že boj o pozornosť spotrebiteľov už nie je jednoducho iba cieľom reklamného oznámenia, ale konečným úspechom je zapojiť spotrebiteľa a motivovať ho k dobrovoľnému prijatiu značky. K tomu, aby sa tak stalo, inzerenti sa musia dobrovoľne vzdať svojej domnienky, že kontrolujú reklamný výsledok a pochopiť, prijať a podporiť skutočnosť, že to musí mať na starosti spotrebiteľ. Naozaj, to je spotrebiteľ a jeho odporúčanie, ktoré je najlepším nosičom marketingovej správy, bez ohľadu na to či ide o metódy tradičných alebo nových mediálnych kanálov.

Kontakt na autorov/Address

Mgr. Sasho Belovski, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Department of Kinanthropology, Humanities, and Management of Sport, José Martího 269/31, 162 52 Praha 6 – Veleslavín, Czech Republic, e-mail: [email protected]

Doc. Ing. Eva Caslavova, CSc., Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Department of Kinanthropology, Humanities, and Management of Sport, José Martího 269/31, 162 52 Praha 6 – Veleslavín, Czech Republic, e-mail: [email protected]


20. máj 2016 / 25. máj 2016